Impact Factor
1.833
5 year Impact Factor
2.299
Editors-in-Chief
Wen-Hao Zhang
Bernhard Schmid
  • Volume 14,Issue 4
    01 August 2021
    (In Progress)
      Research Articles
      Zhi Zheng, Yue Zhang, Shihu Zhang, Qun Ma, Dajie Gong and Guoying Zhou
      2021, 14 (4): 569-579.
      Abstract ( 16 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      Human activities and global changes have led to alterations in global and regional precipitation regimes. Despite extensive studies on the effects of changes in precipitation regimes on plant community composition across different types of grassland worldwide, few studies have specifically focused on the effects of precipitation changes on high-altitude alpine steppe at community and plant species levels in the Tibetan Plateau.

      Methods

      We investigated the effects of growing-season precipitation changes (reduced precipitation by 50%, ambient precipitation, enhanced precipitation by 50%) for 6 years on plant community composition in an alpine steppe of the Tibetan Plateau by linking above- to belowground traits of dominant species.

      Important Findings

      We found that reduced precipitation shifted community composition from dominance by bunchgrass (primarily Stipa purpurea) to dominance by rhizomatous grass (primarily Leymus secalinus). Roots and leaf traits of L. secalinus and S. purpurea differed in their responses to reduced precipitation. Reduced precipitation enhanced root vertical length and carbon (C) allocation to deep soil layers, and decreased the leaf width in L. secalinus, but it did not change the traits in S. purpurea. Moreover, reduced precipitation significantly enhanced rhizome biomass, length, diameter and adventitious root at the rhizome nodes in L. secalinus. These changes in traits may render rhizomatous grass greater competitive during drought stress. Therefore, our findings highlight important roles of above- and belowground traits of dominant species in plant community composition of alpine steppe under precipitation change.

      Camila N. Barrionuevo, Santiago Benitez-Vieyra and Federico Sazatornil
      2021, 14 (4): 580-590.
      Abstract ( 6 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      Adaptive convergence in floral phenotype among plants sharing a pollinator guild has been acknowledged in the concept of pollination syndrome. However, many plants display traits associated with a given syndrome, but are visited by multiple pollinators. This situation may indicate the beginning of a pollinator shift or may result in a stable situation with adaptations to different pollinators. In Salvia stachydifolia, a previous study suggested that flower shape is optimized to maximize the contribution to pollination of bees and hummingbirds. Here, we studied three additional aspects of its floral biology: sexual phases, nectar dynamics and breeding system, and examined their connection with pollinators’ behaviour to explore the presence of adaptations to bee and/or hummingbird pollination.

      Methods

      Using a greenhouse population, we applied five pollination treatments to characterize breeding system. To determine sexual phases, we recorded flower opening, anther dehiscence, corolla fall and stigma receptivity. Additionally, we characterized nectar volume and concentration dynamics along the day. Finally, to determine pollinator assemblage and visitation patterns, we performed field observations and recorded pollinators’ behaviour.

      Important Findings

      Salvia stachydifolia was partially protandrous and self-compatible, but open-pollinated plants attained the highest reproductive success, suggesting that reproduction is mainly dependent on pollinator activity. Bombus opifex bumblebees were the most frequent visitors, but Sappho sparganura hummingbirds dominated visits early in the morning and at dusk. Nectar was typical of bumblebee pollination. We suggest that the bee–hummingbird mixed visitation constitutes an unstable evolutionary situation, making S. stachydifolia an ideal system to understand the ecological circumstances in which pollination shifts occur.

      Dalong Jiang, Qian Li, Qinghong Geng, Menghua Zhang, Chonghua Xu, Guoqing Hu, Caiqin Shen, Honghua Ruan and Xia Xu
      2021, 14 (4): 591-604.
      Abstract ( 9 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      Leaf nutrient resorption is sensitive to changes in soil nutrients. However, the effects of N deposition on nutrient resorption efficiency (NuRE) in plant macro-nutrients remain unclear. Poplar (Populus deltoids) is one of the most extensively cultivated hardwood species worldwide. We explored general patterns and dominant drivers of NuRE and stoichiometry of poplar plantations in response to N addition.

      Methods

      We conducted a 4-year N-addition experiment to explore NuRE and stoichiometric responses to N addition in two poplar (P. deltoids) plantations (8- and 12-year-old stands) in a coastal region of eastern China. We measured soil and foliar (green and senesced leaves) concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) for a series of N addition treatments including N0 (0 kg N ha−1 yr−1), N1 (50 kg N ha−1 yr−1), N2 (100 kg N ha−1 yr−1), N3 (150 kg N ha−1 yr−1) and N4 (300 kg N ha−1 yr−1).

      Important Findings

      Consistent for (both) 8- and 12-year-old stands, N addition did not affect the NuRE and stoichiometry (with the exception of CaRE and CaRE:MgRE ratio). N resorption efficiency–P resorption efficiency (NRE–PRE) scaling slopes were consistently less than 1.0 under N addition. These results suggest that NRE generally decouples from PRE within each N treatment. Moreover, these results point to robust control of green leaf nutritional status on nutrient resorption processes as indicated by the positive relationships between NuRE and green leaf nutrient concentrations. Our findings provided a direct evidence that growth in 12-year-old poplar plantations was N-limited in the coastal region of eastern China.

      Evaldo B. de Souza, Francielli Bao, Geraldo A. Damasceno Junior, and Arnildo Pott
      2021, 14 (4): 605-615.
      Abstract ( 5 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      Our objective was to quantify the contributions of the seed bank and the established vegetation to the species composition, functional composition and diversity, and discuss the implications of these differences in regeneration and persistence of floodplain plant communities.

      Methods

      We sampled all ground cover vegetation up to 1.5 m height and seed bank in 25 plots (10 m × 1 m) distributed across five sites in dry and rainy seasons in a periodically flooded savanna in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. We evaluated the soil seed bank by seedling emergence method.

      Important Findings

      The seed bank species had traits that conferred regeneration to the communities, while persistence traits characterized the vegetation. The seed bank had higher functional richness and lower functional evenness than the vegetation. The existence of different plant traits between seed bank and vegetation allowed the coexistence of species with functionally contrasting persistence and regeneration traits, which may help maintain functional diversity. It may allow the community to be more resilient when dealing with different environmental filters such as drought, fire and flood.

      Yanpei Guo, Zhengbing Yan, Yi-Wei Zhang, Guoyi Zhou, Zongqiang Xie, and Zhiyao Tang
      2021, 14 (4): 616-627.
      Abstract ( 4 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      The scaling relationship between nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations ([N] and [P], respectively) in leaves manifests plants’ relative investment between the two nutrients. However, the variation in this relationship among taxa as well as its causes was seldom described.

      Methods

      The analysis was based on a dataset including 2483 leaf samples from 46 genera of angiosperm woody plants from 1733 sites across China. We calculated the leaf N–P scaling exponent (βL) with an allometric equation ([N] = α[P]β), for each genus, respectively. We then performed phylogenetic path analyses to test how the climate and soil niche conditions of these genera contributed to the inter-genus variation in βL.

      Important Findings

      The genera living with lower soil P availability presented a more favoured P uptake relative to N, as shown by the higher βL, suggesting a resistant trend to P limitation. Additionally, genus-wise βL was positively correlated with soil N–P scaling exponents (βS), implying that the variation in leaf nutrients is constrained by the variability in their sources from soil. Finally, climatic factors including temperature and moisture did not affect βL directly, but could have an indirect influence by mediating soil nutrients. Phylogeny did not affect the inter-genus variation in βL along environmental gradients. These results reveal that the trade-off between N and P uptake is remarkably shaped by genus niches, especially soil nutrient conditions, suggesting that the βL could be considered as a functional trait reflecting characteristics of nutrient utilization of plant taxa in response to niche differentiation.

      Wentao Luo, Xiaoguang Wang, Karl Auerswald, Zhengwen Wang, Michael I. Bird, Christopher J. Still, Xiao-Tao Lü and Xingguo Han
      2021, 14 (4): 628-637.
      Abstract ( 3 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      Understanding the patterns and drivers of carbon isotope discrimination (13Δ) in C3 and C4 functional groups is critical for predicting C3/C4 vegetation ratio from the isotopic composition of soil organic matter. In this study, we aimed to evaluate how intraspecific variation will modify functional group-level 13Δ values and the associated prediction of C3/C4 vegetation ratio.

      Methods

      We investigated 13Δ of 726 individual plants (96 species; C3 and C4 functional groups) and topsoil organic matter in 26 grassland communities along an aridity gradient in northern China. The fraction of C4 contribution was calculated with mixing models that considered: (i) both intra- and interspecific effects on the 13Δ values of C3 and C4 functional groups; (ii) only interspecific effects; or (iii) none of these effects.

      Important Findings

      We found divergent responses of plant 13Δ at the intraspecific level to the changes of aridity across the gradient. The 13Δ of both C3 and C4 functional groups was negatively correlated with an aridity index, with higher sensitivity for C3 than for C4 functional groups. Intraspecific 13Δ variation played a key role in driving the total 13Δ variations of C3 plants. Overlooking such intraspecific effect in mixing models led to a greatly increased fraction of C4 contribution to soil organic carbon. A correction for the effects of intraspecific variation is therefore essential for correctly inferring C3/C4 vegetation ratio in the past. Our findings provide basic information for the reconstruction of past vegetation change from bulk materials in arid and semiarid biomes.

      Alyssa Laney Smith, Daniel Z. Atwater, Wonjae Kim, David C. Haak and Jacob N. Barney
      2021, 14 (4): 638-647.
      Abstract ( 2 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      Within-species genetic and phenotypic variation have well-known effects on evolutionary processes, but less is known about how within-species variation may influence community-level processes. Ecologically meaningful intraspecific variation might be particularly important in the context of anthropogenic impacts on natural systems, such as agriculture and species invasion, because human actions can cause strong selection pressures.

      Methods

      In a greenhouse study, we explored intraspecific (30 accessions) and ecotypic variation (representing agricultural and nonagricultural habitats) in biomass and rhizome production in response to inter- and intraspecific competition and soil fertility of Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), a widespread invasive species and agricultural weed.

      Important Findings

      Contrary to our expectations and previous results, we did not find variation in biomass production among Johnsongrass ecotypes at this early life stage. However, we did find that Johnsongrass biomass varied substantially depending on competitor identity, soil fertility treatments and among accessions. Rhizomes were 11% larger in the agricultural ecotype and up to 3-fold larger in fertilized treatment; while rhizome biomass increased by ~50% when fertilized, but did not differ among ecotypes. Interestingly, in competition, Johnsongrass produced 32% less biomass and 20% less rhizome mass with a conspecific than when competing interspecifically with corn. Our results indicate species-specific competitive responses and changes in rhizome allocation in response to neighbor identity; suggesting the possibility of adaptation by Johnsongrass to shift allocation under competition.

      Dan-Lei Song, Yu-Fei Zhao, Fang-Ping Tang, Yan-Hua Zhang, Shu-Qi Zhou and Li-Jia Dong
      2021, 14 (4): 648-661.
      Abstract ( 4 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      Invasive plants may alter soil fungal communities in a way that improves their growth. Nitrogen (N) content of soil affects the symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), further determining plant growth. Yet, it is unclear whether altered AMF communities change the dependence of invasive and native species on N-form, and whether N forms alter the invasive plant–AMF interaction (PSIM).

      Methods

      Two synthetic plant communities, including four Solidago canadensis individuals and four native plant species, were inoculated with AMF spores from S. canadensis-invaded soils and adjacent non-invaded soils, and were provided with nitrate, ammonia or glutamate. After their growth, the performance of the two plant communities in treatments of AMF origin and N forms, and the pathways of the N forms affecting S. canadensis growth and PSIM were evaluated.

      Important Findings

      Solidago canadensis had no obvious N-form dependence in any of the AMF inoculations. Native plant species showed weak N-form dependence, but invasive AMF could remove their N-form dependence. In the absence of N, AMF did not affect growth of S. canadensis and the native plants. In contrast, with N addition, invasive AMF significantly increased belowground and total biomass of the invasive plants but not those of the native plants. Positive PSIM of S. canadensis was also evidently greater than that of native plant species and was realized through directly or indirectly regulating phenotypic traits including plant height, leaf number and number of rhizomes. Our findings emphasize the importance of plant–AMF interactions and a unique N-acquisition strategy during plant invasions.

      Ricardo Sánchez-Martín, José Maria Gómez, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou and Rafael Rubio de Casas
      2021, 14 (4): 662-672.
      Abstract ( 4 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      Dispersal through space or time via dormancy is one of the primary processes whereby organisms can influence the environment they experience. In plants, strong evolutionary correlations are expected between the two kinds of dispersal because both are performed by the seeds and play comparable adaptive roles. In this paper, we investigated these evolutionary correlations using amphicarpic plants, which simultaneously produce aerial seeds with high spatial dispersal propensity and subterranean seeds that do not disperse.

      Methods

      We investigated the variation in dormancy and germination in aerial and subterranean seeds of two amphicarpic legumes (Vicia amphicarpa L. and Lathyrus amphicarpos L.) and two closely related homocarpic taxa (Vicia sativa L. and Lathyrus cicera L.) by estimating germination percentages following different combinations of dormancy breaking treatments (i.e. dry after-ripening, cold stratification and physical scarification).

      Important Findings

      Our results showed complex interactions between spatial and temporal dispersal. Right after dispersal, aerial seeds were more dormant than their subterranean counterparts, but this trend reversed with after-ripening, as seeds developed physical dormancy. Seeds of homocarpic plants germinated at higher percentages than those of their amphicarpic congeners and lost dormancy homogeneously with after-ripening. Conversely, amphicarpic seeds exhibited varied dormancy strategies modulated by both physiological and physical dormancy. These are expected to increase variation in emergence timing, providing multiple levels of diversifying bet-hedging. This strategy might be adaptive under highly unpredictable conditions by enabling plants to rely on historically favorable sites in good seasons without preventing spatial and temporal migration.

      Short Communication
      Xubin Pan
      2021, 14 (4): 673-678.
      Abstract ( 2 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      It is important to explore the underlying mechanisms that cause triphasic species–area relationship (triphasic SAR) across different scales in order to understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity.

      Methods

      Instead of theory establishment or field data derivation, I adopted a data simulation method that used the power function of SAR to fit log-normal distribution of species abundance.

      Important Findings

      The results showed that one-step sampling caused biphasic SAR and n-step sampling could cause 2n-phasic SAR. Practical two-step sampling produced triphasic SAR due to the Preston and Pan effects in large areas. Furthermore, before exploring biological or ecological mechanisms for the nature phenomenon, we should identify or exclude potential mathematical, statistical or sampling reasons.

      Research Articles
      Zijing Li, Maowei Liang, Zhiyong Li, Pierre Mariotte, Xuze Tong, Jinghui Zhang, Lei Dong, Ying Zheng, Wenhong Ma, Liqing Zhao, Lixin Wang, Lu Wen, Indree Tuvshintogtokh, Elise S. Gornish, Zhenhua Dang, Cunzhu Liang and Frank Yonghong Li
      2021, 14 (4): 679-691.
      Abstract ( 3 )   PDF   Save
      Aims

      Functional group composition of a plant community is mainly driven by environmental factors and is one of the main determinants of grassland biodiversity and productivity. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of plant functional groups (PFGs) in mediating the impact of environmental conditions on ecosystem functions and biodiversity.

      Methods

      We measured plant biomass and species richness (SR) of grasslands in 65 sites on the Mongolian Plateau and classified 157 perennial herbaceous plants into two main PFGs (namely grasses and forbs). Using the random forest model and ordinary least squares regression, we identified that environmental factors (i.e. aridity index, soil total nitrogen [STN] and pH) were significantly related to the SR and aboveground biomass (AGB) of PFGs. We then used structural equation modeling to explore the relationship between the identified environmental factors and community SR and biomass, and the role of PFGs in driving this relationship.

      Important Findings

      We found that aridity index had unimodal relationships with both AGB and SR of the PFGs and the whole community. All SR and biomass metrics were significantly related to STN and pH. The relationship between aridity index and community biomass was mediated by an increase in the AGB of grasses. The influence of STN and pH on community SR was mainly due to their regulation in the SR of forbs. Our results indicate that community composition and the identity of the PFGs play a key role in linking environmental factors to ecosystem functioning.

  • Please wait a minute...
    Bacillus promotes invasiveness of exotic Flaveria bidentis by increasing its nitrogen and phosphorus uptake
    Xue Chen, Qiao Li, Yan Wang, Fengxin Chen, Xiaoya Zhang, Fengjuan Zhang
    doi: 10.1093/jpe/rtab046
    Abstract ( 5 )    PDF    Save
    Aim

    The effect of exotic plants on Bacillus diversity in the rhizosphere and the role of Bacilli in exotic or native plant species remain poorly understood. Flaveria bidentis is an invasive grass in China. Setaria viridis is a native grass and occurs in areas invaded by F. bidentis. Our objectives were (i) to examine the differences in the Bacillus communities between F. bidentis and S. viridis rhizospheres soil, and (ii) to compare the effects of Bacilli from F. bidentis and S. viridis rhizospheres on the competitiveness of the invasive species.

    Methods

    Flaveria bidentis monoculture, mixture of F. bidentis and S. viridis and S. viridis monoculture were designed in the field experiment. Bacillus diversity in their rhizosphere was analyzed using 16S rRNA. One of the dominant Bacilli in the rhizosphere soil of F. bidentis was selected to test its effect on the competitive growth of F. bidentis in a greenhouse experiment.

    Important Findings

    Bacillus diversity differed in F. bidentis and S. viridis rhizosphere. Brevibacterium frigoritolerans was the dominant Bacilli in the rhizosphere of both F. bidentis and S. viridis; however, its relative abundance in the F. bidentis rhizosphere was much higher than that in the S. viridis rhizosphere. In addition, B. frigoritolerans in the F. bidentis rhizosphere enhanced the growth of the plant compared to that of S. viridis by improving the nitrogen and phosphorus levels. This study showed that F. bidentis invasion influenced Bacillus communities, especially B. frigoritolerans, which, in turn, facilitated F. bidentis growth by increasing the levels of available nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Evolution of herbs: Key to the conundrum might be tolerance not avoidance
    Adam Klimeš, Martin Weiser, Tomáš Koubek, Tomáš Herben
    doi: 10.1093/jpe/rtab042
    Abstract ( 3 )    PDF    Save
    Aims

    Woody plants represent the ancestral growth form in angiosperms with herbs evolving repeatedly from them. While there are a number of hypotheses about drivers of the evolution of the herbaceous habit, the ability to avoid frost damage in winter by discarding their aboveground biomass has often been invoked as the main force in their evolution. We propose instead that any unpredictable disturbance might have been much more important than the seasonal frost, as herbs easily survive repeated disturbance.

    Methods

    We tested this hypothesis by comparing herbs and woody plants in their ability to deal with three types of simulated disturbances, more predictable winter freezing, less predictable spring freezing and herbivory. Comparison was made in an experimental common garden setup with 20 species differing in woodiness. We evaluated the effects of these disturbances on mortality and regrowth of plants.

    Important findings

    Herbs did not have an advantage over woody plants in survival when exposed to winter freezing. In less predictable conditions of spring freezing herbs survived the treatment better than woody plants and this advantage was even larger in case of the simulated herbivory treatment. The advantage of herbs over woody plants in less predictable conditions suggests that herbaceous growth form might be an adaptation to unpredictable disturbance, which herbs are able to tolerate thanks to their ability to survive loss of aboveground biomass. Consequently, factors such as mammal herbivory or fire might have been the most likely factors in the transition from woody species to herbs.

    Functional diversity and redundancy of subalpine meadows subjected to anthropogenic disturbances
    Xiaoxia Huang, Zhilu Sheng, Kejian He, Yong Zhang, Bin Kang, Jiao Ding, Dongmei Liu
    doi: 10.1093/jpe/rtab039
    Abstract ( 3 )    PDF    Save
    Aims

    The aims of this study were to assess how functional diversity and redundancy respond to subalpine meadow ecosystem degradation under anthropogenic disturbance and how species contribute to functional redundancy along the disturbance gradient.

    Methods

    The study was carried out in the subalpine meadow in Mount Jade Dragon, which is located at the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Four disturbance intensities [no disturbance (ND), weak disturbance (WD), moderate disturbance (MD), and severe disturbance (SD)] were identified. Species richness, soil properties, and five key plant functional traits were assessed along the disturbance gradient. Simpson’s diversity index, functional diversity based on the Rao algorithm, functional redundancy, community weighted mean of each functional trait, and species-level functional redundancy were determined.

    Important Findings

    Unimodal change pattern of functional diversity and functional redundancy along the disturbance gradient were found in the present study, with their maximum in MD and WD, respectively. Species diversity showed a decreasing trend with increasing disturbance intensity. As disturbance intensified, species with traits related to conservative growth strategies, such as low specific leaf area (SLA) and high leaf dry matter content (LDMC), decreased, whereas species with resource acquisitive strategies, such as small plant, high SLA and low LDMC, increased in the community. At the species level, species showed species-specific roles in functional redundancy. Notably, some species were important in the community in terms of their unique function. For instance, Ligularia dictyoneura in ND and Potentilla delavayi in MD and SD.

    Effects of Robinia pseudoacacia on the undergrowth of herbaceous plants and soil properties in the Loess Plateau of China
    Qian Guo, Zhongming Wen, Cheng Zheng, Wei Li, Yongming Fan, Duoju Zhu
    doi: 10.1093/jpe/rtab041
    Abstract ( 0 )    PDF    Save
    Aims

    The introduction of Robinia pseudoacacia (RP) has some effects on undergrowth herbaceous plants (UH), soil properties, and their relationships, which may be related to the vegetation zone. However, few studies have tested effects of RP on UH and soil over a large scale area of the Loess Plateau.

    Methods

    The study area consisted of three vegetation zones (the steppe, forest-steppe, and forest zone). Two canopy plant types were selected: RP stands, and adjacent native vegetation. We measured five leaf functional traits: leaf carbon content (LC), leaf nitrogen content (LN), leaf phosphorus content (LP), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf tissue density (LTD). The functional diversity, species diversity, and community-weighted mean (CWM) traits were calculated.

    Important Findings

    1) CWM.LN, CWM.LP, and CWM.SLA increased significantly, whereas CWM.LC and CWM.LTD decreased significantly in the three vegetation zones, compared to the native communities. 2) Species diversity, functional diversity and community biomass decreased in the steppe zone, increased in the forest zone, and did not differ significantly in the forest-steppe zone. 3) We found only soil organic carbon (SOC) (p < 0.05) and soil total nitrogen (TN) (p < 0.05) in the forest zone decreased significantly compared to the native plots. 4) The relationship between UH and soil properties was affected by RP and the vegetation zone. Overall, the effect of RP on UH and soil properties was associated with the vegetation zone. This result is of great significance to the planning of restoration and reconstruction of artificial forests in the Loess Plateau.

    Nutrient uptake and gas exchange of Great Basin plants provide insight into drought adaptations and co-existence
    Ricardo Mata-González, Matthew Hovland, Mohamed A B Abdallah, David W Martin, Jay S Noller
    doi: 10.1093/jpe/rtab037
    Abstract ( 1 )    PDF    Save
    Aims

    Although increases in precipitation variability in arid ecosystems are projected due to climate change, the response of desert shrub communities to precipitation change has not been fully elucidated. Such knowledge is important since drought-adapted plants exhibit varied mechanisms of survival that may contribute to species co-existence.

    Methods

    We tested the responses of eight drought-adapted plants, a mix of graminoids, shrubs, and forbs to three summer precipitation scenarios (1.3 cm, 2.6 cm, and 3.9 cm per month) in a common garden experiment in the Great Basin, (Owens Valley, California). Changes in mineral nutrient uptake (Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Copper, Boron, Zinc, Iron and Sodium) and gas exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance) were investigated in the studied species.

    Important findings

    Two graminoids (Sporobolus airoides and Leymus triticoides) and one salt tolerant shrub species (Atriplex confertifolia) responded to increased water availability with increases in photosynthetic rate and/or stomatal conductance. There was a significant correlation between water availability and uptake of nutrients for five out of eight species. Artemisia tridentata, with higher rates of photosynthesis, contained greater amounts of potassium, copper, and boron, while Juncus arcticus, with higher rates of photosynthesis, contained greater amounts of magnesium and iron, and less sodium. Juncus arcticus and three salt-adapted species (A. confertifolia, Distichlis spicata, and S. airoides) exhibited correlations with stomatal conductance and concentrations of nutrients. Results indicate that differential physiological response mechanisms to increased moisture and associated nutrient uptake strategies in drought-adapted species may mediate co-existence under increased summer precipitation.

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