J Plant Ecol ›› 2014, Vol. 7 ›› Issue (6): 559-566.DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtt067

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effect of open-field experimental warming on the leaf phenology of oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) seedlings

Saerom Han1, Haegeun Chung2, Nam Jin Noh3, Sun Jeoung Lee4, Wooyong Jo5, Tae Kyung Yoon1, Koong Yi6, Chan-woo Park6, Suin Ko7 and Yowhan Son1,3,*   

  1. 1 Department of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 136–713, Korea; 2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143–701, Korea; 3 River Basin Research Center, Gifu University, Gifu 501–1193, Japan; 4 Forest and Climate Change Center, Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130–712, Korea; 5 Hanlim Patent and Law Office, Seoul 152-050, Korea; 6 Forest Soil and Water Conservation Division, Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130–712, Korea; 7 Environmental Policy Research Group, Korea Environment Institute, Seoul 122–706, Korea
  • Received:2013-06-14 Accepted:2013-12-18 Published:2014-11-20
  • Contact: Son, Yowhan

Abstract: Aims An open-field warming experiment enables us to test the effects of projected temperature increase on change in plant phenology with fewer confounding factors and to study phenological response to temperature ranges beyond natural variability. This study aims to (i) examine the effect of temperature increase on leaf unfolding and senescence of oriental oak (Quercus variabilis Blume) under experimental warming and (ii) measure temperature-related parameters used in estimating phenological response to temperature elevation.
Methods Using an open-field warming system with infrared heaters, we increased the air temperature by ~3°C in the warmed plots compared with that of the control plots consistently for 2 years. Leaf unfolding and senescence dates of Q. variabilis seedlings were recorded and temperature-related phenological parameters were analysed.
Important findings The timing of leaf unfolding was advanced by 3–8 days (1.1–3.0 days/°C) and the date of leaf senescence was delayed by 14–19 days (5.0–7.3 days/°C) under elevated air temperatures. However, the cumulative degree days (CDD) of leaf unfolding were not significantly changed by experimental warming, which suggest the applicability of a constant CDD value to estimate the change in spring leaf phenology under 3°C warming. Consistent ranges of advancement and temperature sensitivity in spring phenology and delayed autumn phenology and proposed temperature parameters from this study might be applied to predict future phenological change.

Key words: climate change, cumulative degree days, experimental warming, leaf senescence, leaf unfolding

摘要:
Aims An open-field warming experiment enables us to test the effects of projected temperature increase on change in plant phenology with fewer confounding factors and to study phenological response to temperature ranges beyond natural variability. This study aims to (i) examine the effect of temperature increase on leaf unfolding and senescence of oriental oak (Quercus variabilis Blume) under experimental warming and (ii) measure temperature-related parameters used in estimating phenological response to temperature elevation.
Methods Using an open-field warming system with infrared heaters, we increased the air temperature by ~3°C in the warmed plots compared with that of the control plots consistently for 2 years. Leaf unfolding and senescence dates of Q. variabilis seedlings were recorded and temperature-related phenological parameters were analysed.
Important findings The timing of leaf unfolding was advanced by 3–8 days (1.1–3.0 days/°C) and the date of leaf senescence was delayed by 14–19 days (5.0–7.3 days/°C) under elevated air temperatures. However, the cumulative degree days (CDD) of leaf unfolding were not significantly changed by experimental warming, which suggest the applicability of a constant CDD value to estimate the change in spring leaf phenology under 3°C warming. Consistent ranges of advancement and temperature sensitivity in spring phenology and delayed autumn phenology and proposed temperature parameters from this study might be applied to predict future phenological change.