Top Read Articles
Published in last 1 year |  In last 2 years |  In last 3 years |  All
Please wait a minute...
For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
Patterns and ecological determinants of woody plant height in eastern Eurasia and its relation to primary productivity
Zhiheng Wang, Yaoqi Li, Xiangyan Su, Shengli Tao, Xiao Feng, Qinggang Wang, Xiaoting Xu, Yunpeng Liu, Sean T. Michaletz, Nawal Shrestha, Markku Larjavaara, and Brian J. Enquist
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (5): 791-803.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz025
Abstract87)      PDF(pc) (2852KB)(34)       Save
Aims

Plant height is a key functional trait related to aboveground biomass, leaf photosynthesis and plant fitness. However, large-scale geographical patterns in community-average plant height (CAPH) of woody species and drivers of these patterns across different life forms remain hotly debated. Moreover, whether CAPH could be used as a predictor of ecosystem primary productivity is unknown.

Methods

We compiled mature height and distributions of 11 422 woody species in eastern Eurasia, and estimated geographic patterns in CAPH for different taxonomic groups and life forms. Then we evaluated the effects of environmental (including current climate and historical climate change since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)) and evolutionary factors on CAPH. Lastly, we compared the predictive power of CAPH on primary productivity with that of LiDAR-derived canopy-height data from a global survey.

Important Findings

Geographic patterns of CAPH and their drivers differed among taxonomic groups and life forms. The strongest predictor for CAPH of all woody species combined, angiosperms, all dicots and deciduous dicots was actual evapotranspiration, while temperature was the strongest predictor for CAPH of monocots and tree, shrub and evergreen dicots, and water availability for gymnosperms. Historical climate change since the LGM had only weak effects on CAPH. No phylogenetic signal was detected in family-wise average height, which was also unrelated to the tested environmental factors. Finally, we found a strong correlation between CAPH and ecosystem primary productivity. Primary productivity showed a weaker relationship with CAPH of the tallest species within a grid cell and no relationship with LiDAR-derived canopy height reported in the global survey. Our findings suggest that current climate rather than historical climate change and evolutionary history determine the geographical patterns in CAPH. However, the relative effects of climatic factors representing environmental energy and water availability on spatial variations of CAPH vary among plant life forms. Moreover, our results also suggest that CAPH can be used as a good predictor of ecosystem primary productivity.

Related Articles | Metrics
Multiple mechanisms in woodland plant species invasion
Robert J. Warren II, Matt Candeias, Adam Labatore, Michael Olejniczak and Lin Yang
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 201-209.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty010
Online available: 24 February 2018

Abstract84)      PDF       Save
Aims

A plethora of theories explain species invasion, yet when tested in isolation, support or falsification becomes contingent on study species, system and approach. Our objective was to examine community-level species invasion as a function of multiple competing hypotheses.

Methods

We used data from >3500 woodland plant species in 2750 plots in 49 national parks in eastern US deciduous forests to test multiple competing theories of species invasion: competition, empty niche, propagule pressure and latitude matching. We also tested interactions with residence time to account for non-native species naturalization and spread since arrival.

Important Findings

The non-native herbs generally thrived at latitudes similar to those from which they originated, but not necessarily where they were originally introduced to the eastern US. Overall, we found that each hypothesis explained at least some aspect of woodland plant species invasion, but examining them simultaneously allowed assessment of their relative strengths and interactions. Our results suggested that residence time is a strong predictor of non-native woodland plant success, particularly as it interacts with other mechanisms of invasion, such as competition (abundance of native woodland plants), climate matching (similar invaded latitude as home range), propagule pressure (distance to putative seed sources) and empty niche (relatedness to native plants). We found that initial barriers, such as distance from propagule source or suboptimal habitat, were overcome, as was resistance from native relatives. However, the biggest challenge for the non-native woodland plants appeared to be time, as they declined after ~1 to 2 centuries.

Related Articles | Metrics
C:N:P stoichiometry of Ericaceae species in shrubland biomes across Southern China: influences of climate, soil and species identity
Qiang Zhang, Qing Liu, Huajun Yin, Chunzhang Zhao, Lin Zhang, Guoying Zhou, Chunying Yin, Zhijun Lu, Gaoming Xiong, Yuelin Li, Jiaxiang Li, Wenting Xu, Zhiyao Tang and Zongqiang Xie
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 346-357.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty033
Online available: 30 August 2018

Abstract74)      PDF       Save
Aims

Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry strongly affect functions and nutrient cycling within ecosystems. However, the related researches in shrubs were very limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate leaf stoichiometry and its driving factors in shrubs, and whether stoichiometry significantly differs among closely related species.

Methods

We analyzed leaf C, N and P concentrations and their ratios in 32 species of Ericaceae from 161 sites across southern China. We examined the relationships of leaf stoichiometry with environmental variables using linear regressions, and quantified the interactive and independent effects of climate, soil and species on foliar stoichiometry using general linear models (GLM).

Important Findings

The foliar C, N and P contents of Ericaceae were 484.66, 14.44 and 1.06 mg g?1, respectively. Leaf C, N and P concentrations and their ratios in Ericaceae were significantly related with latitude and altitude, except the N:P insignificantly correlated with latitude. Climate (mean annual temperature and precipitation) and soil properties (soil C, N and P and bulk density) were significantly influenced element stoichiometry. The GLM analysis showed that soil exerted a greater direct effect on leaf stoichiometry than climate did, and climate affected leaf traits mainly via indirect ways. Further, soil properties had stronger influences on leaf P than on leaf C and N. Among all independent factors examined, we found species accounted for the largest proportion of the variation in foliar stoichiometry. These results suggest that species can largely influence foliar stoichiometry, even at a lower taxonomic level.

Related Articles | Metrics
Directional changes of species spatial dispersion and realized environmental niches drive plant community assembly during early plant succession
Werner Ulrich, Markus Klemens Zaplata, Susanne Winter and Anton Fischer
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (3): 409-418.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty038
Online available: 01 October 2018

Abstract65)      PDF       Save
Aims

Probabilistic models of species co-occurrences predict aggregated intraspecific spatial distributions that might decrease the degree of joint species occurrences and increase community richness. Yet, little is known about the influence of intraspecific aggregation on the co-occurrence of species in natural, species-rich communities. Here, we focus on early plant succession and ask how changes in intraspecific aggregation of colonizing plant species influence the pattern of species co-existence, richness and turnover.

Methods

We studied the early vegetation succession in a six ha constructed catchment within the abandoned part of a lignite mine in NE Germany. At two spatial scales (1- and 25-m2 plots), we compared for each pair of species the intraspecific degree of aggregation and the pattern of co-occurrence and compared observed relationships with temporal changes in important species functional traits.

Important Findings

The majority of species occurred in an aggregated manner, particularly in the first 2 years of succession. In pairwise comparisons, we found an excess of segregated species occurrences leading to a positive link between intraspecific aggregation and pairwise species segregation as predicted by the aggregation hypothesis, particularly at the lower spatial resolution. The degree of intraspecific aggregation was negatively correlated with the community-wide level of species spatial turnover and with plot species richness. Our results are the first direct confirmation that increasing intraspecific aggregation and interspecific competitive interactions counteract in shaping plant community structure during succession. The respective effects of aggregation were strongest at intermediate states of early succession.

Related Articles | Metrics
Comparison of leaf area index inversion for grassland vegetation through remotely sensed spectra by unmanned aerial vehicle and field-based spectroradiometer
Zongyao Sha, Yuwei Wang, Yongfei Bai, Yujin Zhao, Hua Jin, Ya Na and Xiaoliang Meng
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (3): 395-408.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty036
Online available: 15 September 2018

Abstract64)      PDF       Save
Aims

Remote sensing technology has been proved useful in mapping grassland vegetation properties. Spectral features of vegetation cover can be recorded by optical sensors on board of different platforms. With increasing popularity of applying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to mapping plant cover, the study aims to investigate the possible applications and potential issues related to mapping leaf area index (LAI) through integration of remote sensing imagery collected by multiple sensors.

Methods

This paper applied the collected spectral data through field-based (FLD) and UAV-borne spectroradiometer to map LAI in a Sino–German experiment pasture located in the Xilingol grassland, Inner Mongolia, China. Spectroradiometers on FLD and UAV platforms were taken to measure spectral reflectance related to the targeted vegetation properties. Based on eight vegetation indices (VIs) computed from the collected hyperspectral data, regression models were used to inverse LAI. The spectral responses between FLD and UAV platforms were compared, and the regression models relating LAI with VIs from FLD and UAV were established. The modeled LAIs by UAV and FLD platforms were analyzed in order to evaluate the feasibility of potential integration of spectra data for mapping vegetation from the two platforms.

Important Findings

Results indicated that the spectral reflectance between FLD and UAV showed critical gaps in the green and near-infrared regions of the spectrum over densely vegetated areas, while the gaps were small over sparsely vegetated areas. The VI values from FLD spectra were greater than their UAV-based counterparts. Out of all the VIs, broadband generalized soil-adjusted vegetation index (GESAVI) and narrow-band nNDVI2 were found to achieve the best results in terms of the accuracy of the inversed LAIs for both FLD and UAV platforms. We conclude that GESAVI and nNDVI2 are the two promising VIs for both platforms and thus preferred for LAI inversion to carry spectra integration of the two platforms. We suggest that accuracy on the LAI inversion could be improved by applying more advanced functions (e.g. non-linear) considering the observed bias for the difference between the UAV- and FLD-inversed LAIs, especially when LAI was low.

Related Articles | Metrics

Examining residual spatial correlation in variation partitioning of beta diversity in a subtropical forest

Ke Cao, Xiangcheng Mi, Liwen Zhang, Haibao Ren, Mingjian Yu, Jianhua Chen, Jintun Zhang and Keping Ma
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 636-644.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty058
Online available: 07 January 2019

Abstract56)      PDF       Save
Aims

The relative roles of ecological processes in structuring beta diversity are usually quantified by variation partitioning of beta diversity with respect to environmental and spatial variables or gamma diversity. However, if important environmental or spatial factors are omitted, or a scale mismatch occurs in the analysis, unaccounted spatial correlation will appear in the residual errors and lead to residual spatial correlation and problematic inferences.

Methods

Multi-scale ordination (MSO) partitions the canonical ordination results by distance into a set of empirical variograms which characterize the spatial structures of explanatory, conditional and residual variance against distance. Then these variance components can be used to diagnose residual spatial correlation by checking assumptions related to geostatistics or regression analysis. In this paper, we first illustrate the performance of MSO using a simulated data set with known properties, thus making statistical issues explicit. We then test for significant residual spatial correlation in beta diversity analyses of the Gutianshan (GTS) 24-ha subtropical forest plot in eastern China.

Important Findings

Even though we used up to 24 topographic and edaphic variables mapped at high resolution and spatial variables representing spatial structures at all scales, we still found significant residual spatial correlation at the 10 m × 10 m quadrat scale. This invalidated the analysis and inferences at this scale. We also show that MSO provides a complementary tool to test for significant residual spatial correlation in beta diversity analyses. Our results provided a strong argument supporting the need to test for significant residual spatial correlation before interpreting the results of beta diversity analyses.

Related Articles | Metrics
Opposite effects of nitrogen fertilization and plastic film mulching on crop N and P stoichiometry in a temperate agroecosystem
Fan Ding, Shuangyi Li, Xiao-Tao Lü, Feike A. Dijkstra, Sean Schaeffer, Tingting An, Jiubo Pei, Liangjie Sun and Jingkuan Wang
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 682-692.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz006
Online available: 24 January 2019

Abstract53)      PDF       Save
Aims

Crop nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry can influence food nutritive quality and many ecosystem processes. However, how and why N and P stoichiometry respond to long-term agricultural management practices (e.g. N fertilization and film mulching) are not clearly understood.

Methods

We collected maize tissues (leaf, stem, root and seed) and soil samples from a temperate cropland under 30-year continuous N fertilization and plastic film mulching treatments, measured their C, N and P concentrations (the proportion (%) relative to the sample mass), and used structural equation models to uncover the responding mechanisms for crop N and P contents (the total amount (g/m2) in crop biomass).

Important Findings

Long-term N fertilization increased N concentrations in all crop tissues but sharply decreased P concentrations in vegetative tissues (leaf, stem and root), thereby reducing their C/N ratio and increasing C/P and N/P ratios. The drop in P concentration in vegetative tissues was due to the dilution effect by biomass increment and the priority of P supply for seed production. In contrast, film mulching decreased N concentration but increased P concentrations in most crop tissues, thereby increasing C/N ratio and reducing C/P and N/P ratios. Film mulching increased crop P content by increasing soil temperature and moisture; whereas, mulching showed little effect on crop N content, because a positive effects of soil temperature may have canceled out a negative effect by soil moisture. This indicated a decoupling of P and N uptake by crops under film mulching. In conclusion, N fertilization and plastic film mulching showed opposite effects of on crop N and P stoichiometry.

Related Articles | Metrics
Intraspecific trait variation improves the detection of deterministic community assembly processes in early successional forests, but not in late successional forests
Shuai Fang, Marc William Cadotte, Zuoqiang Yuan, Fei Lin, Ji Ye, Zhanqing Hao and Xugao Wang
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 593-602.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty053
Abstract52)      PDF       Save
Aims

Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) has been increasingly recognized to play an important role in understanding the underlying processes influencing community assembly. However, gaps remain in our understanding of how incorporating ITV will influence the relative importance of deterministic (e.g. habitat filtering, limiting similarity) and stochastic processes in driving community assembly at different successional stages.

Methods

We used data for eight functional traits from 55 woody species in early (24 ha) and late (25 ha) successional temperate forest plot in northeast China. We employed an approximate Bayesian computation approach to assess the relative contribution of stochastic processes, habitat filtering and limiting similarity in driving community structure. We then compared the results with and without intraspecific trait variation to investigate how ITV influences the inferred importance of each process.

Important Findings

We found that when analyzing interspecific trait variation only (i.e. without ITV), stochastic processes were observed most frequently in driving community composition, followed by habitat filtering and limiting similarity in both forests. However, ITV analyses showed that the relative importance of both deterministic processes (habitat filtering and limiting similarity) increased in early successional forest, but remained virtually unchanged in late successional forest. Our study reveals the distinctive influence of ITV on the inference of underlying processes in a context of succession and reinforces the need to estimate ITV for making correct inferences about underlying ecological processes.


Related Articles | Metrics
Resorption-related nitrogen changes in the leaves and roots of Larix kaempferi seedlings under nutrient-sufficient and nutrient-starvation conditions
Tao Yan, Jiaojun Zhu, Huanhuan Song and Kai Yang
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 615-623.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty056
Online available: 27 December 2018

Abstract50)      PDF       Save
Aims

Larch is the dominant timber species in Northeast China. However, compared with the adjacent secondary forests, soil available nitrogen (N) significantly declined in ~40-year-old larch plantations. Thus, it is of great importance to determine how N use strategies in larch change in response to declining soil N availability.

Methods

We investigated the changes in N concentration and 15N natural abundance (δ15N) from 18 August to 25 October in the leaves, stems, branches and roots of 1-year-old Larix kaempferi seedlings under nutrient-sufficient (NSu) and nutrient-starvation (NSt) conditions with a pot experiment in Northeast China.

Important Findings

Stem and branch N concentrations exhibited upward trends, and leaf N concentration exhibited a downward trend. Root N concentration exhibited an upward trend under NSu conditions, but a downward trend under NSt conditions. These results suggested that stems and branches were served as N storage organs, but roots shifted from storage to resorption organs when switched from NSu to NSt. Leaf nutrient resorption was intensely occurred on 11 October, as indicated by the sharply decreased leaf N concentration and increased stem, root and branch N concentrations. The δ15N of roots, branches and leaves overlapped between NSu and NSt approximately on 11 October, which may be regulated by isotope discrimination during N resorption. Leaf N resorption efficiency under NSt (76.33%) was significantly higher than that of NSu (56.76%), indicating that nutrient stress stimulates leaf N resorption. Taken together, larch seedlings enhance leaf nutrient resorption and shift roots from nutrient storage to nutrient resorption to adapt to NSt conditions. These changes might relieve the adverse effects of declining soil nutrient availability on seedling survival and regeneration.

Related Articles | Metrics
Nitrogen preference across generations under changing ammonium nitrate ratios
Stefani Daryanto, Lixin Wang, William P. Gilhooly III and Pierre-André Jacinthe
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 235-244.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty014
Online available: 31 March 2018

Abstract49)      PDF       Save
Aims

Nitrogen (N) in natural environments is typically supplied by a mixture of ammonia (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). However, factors that underlie either NH4+ or NO3- preference, and how such preference will change across generations remain unclear. We conducted a series of experiments to answer whether: (i) NH4+:NO3- ratio is the driving factor for plant N preference, and (ii) this preference is consistent across generations.

Methods

We conducted both: (i) field observations (as a proxy for parent or P generation) and (ii) greenhouse experiments (the first generation or F1 and the second generation or F2) using corn and soybean grown under different NH4+:NO3- ratios.

Important Findings

Both corn and soybean had the physiological plasticity to prefer either NH4+ or NO3- depending on NH4+:NO3- ratios, and this plasticity was consistent across generations. Corn, however, showed a stronger preference towards NO3- while soybean showed a stronger preference towards NH4+. While both plants would try to make use of the most available form of N in their growing medium, plant species, physiological characteristics (e.g. maturity) and plant nutrient status also determined the extent of N uptake. From the evolutionary and productivity perspective, this plasticity is beneficial, allowing plants to effectively acquire available N particularly in a changing climate.

Related Articles | Metrics
Plant traits related to leaf decomposition processes in arid ecosystems of northern Patagonia
Marlene I. Bar Lamas, Analía L. Carrera and Mónica B. Bertiller
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 216-227.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty012
Online available: 05 March 2018

Abstract46)      PDF       Save
Aims

Plants play an important role in ecosystem processes. Functional meaning of trait variation in wide environmental gradients is well known but is scarcely known across narrow gradients. We analyze the variation of morphological, physical and chemical traits of dominant plant species and the potential rates of dry mass loss and N release/immobilization during senesced leaf decomposition of these species across a narrow aridity gradient, and to identify indicative traits useful to set species functional groups sharing decomposition patterns.

Methods

We analyzed the variation of morphological, physical and chemical traits (specific leaf area, seed mass, N and soluble phenols in green and senesced leaves, plant height) in dominant plant species at 12 sites across an aridity gradient in northern Patagonia, Argentina. We collected senesced leaves of each plant species at each site and used them to estimate the potential rates of dry mass loss and N release/immobilization from decomposing senesced leaves in a microcosm experiment. We analyzed the variation of plant traits and decomposition rates across the aridity gradient. We grouped plants species according to growth forms (perennial grasses, deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs) and different combinations of morpho-physical and chemical traits of green and senesced leaves and compared the potential rates of dry mass loss and N release/immobilization during leaf decomposition among these groups delimited by each grouping criteria.

Important Findings

Plant traits did not vary across the aridity gradient. The potential rate of dry mass loss was positively related to aridity, while the potential rate of N release/immobilization did not vary across the gradient. Grouping species by separately morpho-physical and chemical traits resulted in a large overlapping in mean values of decomposition rates among groups. In contrast, plant groupings based on growth forms and those including all morpho-physical and chemical traits of green or senesced leaves yielded groups with differentiated rates of decomposition processes. The two latter groupings clustered species from more than one growth form indicating some overlapping in the rates of decomposition processes among species of different growth forms. Among traits, N concentration in senesced leaves and plant height explained the highest variation in decomposition rates being positively related to potential rates of dry mass loss and N release/immobilization. We concluded that plant groupings based on morpho-physical and chemical traits of either green or senesced leaves may be more powerful to differentiate functional species groups sharing decomposition patterns than the growth form grouping. Moreover, plant height and N concentration in senesced leaves may be considered relevant synthetic functional traits in relation to decomposition processes in narrow aridity gradients.

Related Articles | Metrics
Impacts of short-term nitrogen addition on the thallus nitrogen and phosphorus balance of the dominant epiphytic lichens in the Shennongjia mountains, China
Ming Wang, Chuanhua Wang, Lin Yang and Hua Guo
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 751-758.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz013
Online available: 07 March 2019

Abstract46)      PDF       Save
Aims

To better understand whether and how nitrogen addition impacts the epiphytic lichens in the Shennongjia Nature Reserve (China).

Methods

Five dominant epiphytic lichen species, including Usnea longissimaU. luridorufaRamalina calicaris var. japonicaU. dasopoga and U. betulina, were selected as materials, and then field and laboratory nitrogen addition experiments were performed. The phosphomonoesterase (PME) activity and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content of these lichens were measured, and then the effects of nitrogen addition on thallus nutrient balance and PME activity were discussed.

Important Findings

Our results showed that with an increased N deposition from 0.6 to 50 kg N ha?1 a?1, the thallus N content of the five lichen species increased significantly, suggesting that those lichens had strong ability to take up and accumulate N, and an universality of N intolerance in epiphytic lichens. Meanwhile, the P content of five lichens increased slower than N content among N treatments, indicating the supply of P was deteriorated when the supply of N increased. The N addition also led to the N:P ratios of five lichens increased from about 10 to 20, and reached a maximum at 50 kg N ha?1 a?1, and the PME activity of the five lichen species was upregulated by the N addition, indicated that the balance between N and P was deteriorated in these lichens. We concluded that increases in N deposition will lead to nutrient imbalance in lichens and that nitrogen enrichment will change these five lichen species from being N limited to being P limited. Our research will be of value in the conservation of lichen diversity in the Shennongjia Nature Reserve (China).

Related Articles | Metrics
Effects of clonal integration and nitrogen supply on responses of a clonal plant to short-term herbivory
Bi-Cheng Dong, Li-Min Zhang, Kai-Yu Li, Xiao-Ting Hu, Pu Wang, Yong-Jian Wang, Fang-Li Luo, Hong-Li Li and Fei-Hai Yu
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 624-635.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty057
Online available: 02 January 2019

Abstract45)      PDF       Save
Aims

Clonal integration, i.e. resource sharing between interconnected ramets, can help clonal plants tolerate abiotic stress. However, few studies have directly examined the ecological significance of clonal integration in the ability of clonal plants to tolerate biotic stress such as herbivory.

Methods

We grew clonal fragments of an invasive clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides, each consisting of an apical part (relatively young) and a basal part (relatively old), at two levels (low and high) of soil nitrogen (N). For each fragment, the apical part was subjected to either no herbivory or herbivory for 2 weeks by a specialist insect, Agasicles hygrophila, and was either connected with or disconnected from the basal part not subjected to herbivory.

Important Findings

Herbivory in the apical part severely reduced leaf growth (leaf mass, leaf number or leaf area) and ramet production of both apical and basal parts, and increased root to shoot ratio of the apical part. Irrespective of herbivory and soil N, stem connection between the apical and the basal part decreased root to shoot ratio of the apical part, but did not change its growth measures. Meanwhile, connection increased stem N concentration of the apical part growing under high-N supply and decreased stem carbon (C) concentration of the apical part under low-N supply. By contrast, connection increased root to shoot ratio of the basal part, but reduced its leaf and ramet production. Connection also increased leaf and stem C concentrations of the basal part under low-N supply. Thus, clonal integration can be beneficial for the early development of young A. philoxeroides ramets, but not for their local adaptation to herbivory damage by A. hygrophila.

Related Articles | Metrics
Do subtropical grasslands recover spontaneously after afforestation?
Fábio Piccin Torchelsen, Monica Cadenazzi, Gerhard Ernst Overbeck
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 228-234.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty011
Online available: 09 March 2018

Abstract45)      PDF       Save
Aims

South American Pampa grasslands are habitats of great conservation interest, with a distinct and rich flora, but have been intensely converted to other land uses, including tree plantations. While necessity for restoration grows, no information on restoration potential of grasslands after afforestation exists. Here, we aim at analyzing composition and structure of grassland vegetation with a history of eucalyptus plantations in order to assess recovery potential of these areas. We hypothesized that areas with history of eucalyptus would differ from reference grasslands with no history of land-use change in terms of floristic and functional composition and would present lower species richness.

Methods

Our study region comprised four sites in the southeastern part of the Pampa biome, in the coastal plain in the extreme south of Brazil, always with sites with long (50 years) history of eucalyptus plantation and reference grassland. We sampled vegetation at post-eucalyptus sites (with and without resprouting) 10 years after clearclutting and in natural grasslands. We analyzed data by analysis of variance and ordination techniques, considering compositional parameters and life forms, and indicator species analysis.

Important Findings

Species richness and vegetation cover were higher in reference grassland than in resprout areas but did not differ from post-eucalyptus areas. Exotic species cover was significantly higher in areas with afforestation history. In terms of total composition, natural grasslands differed significantly from areas with past plantation use. Indicator species analyses revealed considerable differences between grassland types. In conclusion, vegetation development led to grassland communities that are still quite distinct from reference sites. Likely, the specificity of grassland management has a high importance in defining vegetation trajectories in time and importance for grassland recovery, and restoration needs to be addressed in more studies.

Related Articles | Metrics
Weighted average regression and environmental calibration as a tool for quantifying climate-driven changes in vegetation
Kuber Prasad Bhatta, Harry John Betteley Birks, John-Arvid Grytnes and Ole Reidar Vetaas
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 787-789.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz015
Online available: 08 May 2019

Abstract45)      PDF       Save
Related Articles | Metrics
Smoke interacts with fire history to stimulate soil seed bank germination in Mediterranean woodlands
Neta Manela, Ella Dagon, Hagai Semesh and Ofer Ovadia
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (3): 419-427.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty052
Online available: 07 December 2018

Abstract45)      PDF       Save
Aims

Fire has important consequences on vegetation dynamics. In fire-prone areas, natural selection favors plant species, characterized by a large soil seed bank, and that their germination is stimulated by fire. Although seed germination stimulated by fire heat is common in the eastern Mediterranean Basin, only little is known about germination stimulation by smoke. We examined the interactive effect of aerosol smoke and fire history on the germinable soil seed bank (GSSB) community in eastern Mediterranean woodlands.

Methods

We collected soil samples from sites that have been subjected to different fire frequencies during the last four decades and exposed them to aerosol smoke, with or without watering. By documenting the seed germination patterns characterizing these samples, we could test for changes in the abundance and richness of the germinable seeds in the soil.

Important Findings

Total GSSB density was higher in sites that were burned more frequently during the last four decades. Exposure to aerosol smoke increased the GSSB density, and this pattern was more pronounced in samples originating from sites burned more frequently, as well as among annual species. Notably, exposing wet samples to aerosol smoke caused a significant reduction in GSSB density and richness. These results highlight the importance of exploring germination responses using intact soil samples, rather than synthetic seed communities. Moreover, our findings emphasize the important role smoke plays in shaping post-fire succession processes in the Mediterranean Basin, mainly by stimulating the germination of annual species.

Related Articles | Metrics
Effects of wildfire on soil respiration and its heterotrophic and autotrophic components in a montane coniferous forest
Jian Song, Zhen Liu, Yuan Zhang, Tao Yan, Zehao Shen and Shilong Piao
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 336-345.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty031
Online available: 24 August 2018

Abstract44)      PDF       Save
Aims

Episodic wildfires are expected to occur more frequently under future climate change scenarios, with substantial effects on CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study examined the effects of wildfire on soil respiration (RS) and its heterotrophic (RH) and autotrophic (RA) components, as well as their temperature responses (temperature sensitivity, Q10).

Methods

We began this study in January 2014, 8 months after a wildfire, in a montane coniferous forest in southwestern China. A trenching method was used to exclude plant roots and quantify RHRA was calculated by subtracting RH from RS.

Important findings

From 2014 to 2015, the wildfire significantly reduced RSRH and RA by 61.3%, 42.5% and 84.0%, respectively, leading to increases in the ratio of RH to RS, from 0.63 in the unburned stand to 0.85 in the burned stand. Ignoring diurnal differences, the wildfire did not affect the Q10 of RSor RH, but substantially decreased the Q10 of RA, from 2.62 in the unburned stand to 2.08 in the burned stand. However, the daytime Q10 of RS and RH was suppressed following the wildfire by 25.1% and 28.8%, respectively, primarily due to increased daytime soil temperature. In the montane coniferous forest, monthly precipitation but not soil temperature drove seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 release. Our findings help to clarify the mechanisms underlying carbon cycling responses to natural disturbance, especially under a warmer future climate.

Related Articles | Metrics
Review on global change status and its impacts on the Tibetan Plateau environment
Aamir Latif, Sana Ilyas, Yangjian Zhang, Yuqin Xin, Lin Zhou and Quan Zhou
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (6): 917-930.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz038
Abstract43)      PDF       Save

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) holds fundamental ecological and environmental significances to China and Asia. The TP also lies in the core zone of the belt and road initiative. To protect the TP environment, a comprehensive screening on current ecological research status is entailed. The teased out research gap can also be utilized as guidelines for the recently launched major research programs, i.e. the second TP scientific expedition and silk and belt road research plan. The findings showed that the TP has experienced significant temperature increase at a rate of 0.2°C per decade since 1960s. The most robust warming trend was found in the northern plateau. Precipitation also exhibited an increasing trend but with high spatial heterogeneity. Changing climates have caused a series of environmental consequences, including lake area changes, glacier shrinkage, permafrost degradation and exacerbated desertification. The rising temperature is the main reason behind the glaciers shrinkage, snow melting, permafrost degradation and lake area changes on the TP and neighboring regions. The projected loss of glacial area on the plateau is estimated to be around 43% by 2070 and 75% by the end of the century. Vegetation was responsive to the changed environments, varied climates and intensified human activities by changing phenology and productivity. Future global change study should be more oriented toward integrating various research methods and tools, and synthesizing diverse subjects of water, vegetation, atmosphere and soil.

Related Articles | Metrics
Geographic patterns of plant–herbivore interactions are driven by soil fertility
Joshua S. Lynn and Jason D. Fridley
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 653-661.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz002
Online available: 14 January 2019

Abstract42)      PDF       Save
Aims

Geographic patterns of the intensity of plant herbivory in relation to climate factors have garnered little general support and appear to be species specific. However, plant–herbivore interactions are also driven by resource availability, such as soil nutrient content, and it remains unclear whether broad-scale variation in soil factors is reflected in herbivore consumption rates across species’ ranges. Additionally, we know little of how intraspecific variation in tissue quality associates with edaphic and climatic factors, and how this variation controls herbivore consumption. The resource availability hypothesis (RAH) predicts that plant individuals growing in low-resource environments will have lower leaf nutritional quality and more constitutive defenses, which will result in lower rates of leaf consumption.

Methods

We collected leaves from the old-field dominant species, Solidago altissima L., from 20 sites across 10 degrees of latitude in the Eastern USA to determine the percentage leaf area consumed by insect folivores. We obtained soil and climate data for each site, as well as plant functional and defensive traits, including specific leaf area (SLA), leaf carbon:nitrogen (C:N), and trichome density.

Important Findings

Although we found no significant latitudinal trend of leaf consumption rate, there was strong evidence that leaf herbivory decreased with leaf C:N and trichome density, which themselves decreased with soil N, supporting our hypothesis that the RAH applies for intraspecific variation across spatial gradients. Additionally, high precipitation seasonality and soil nitrogen predicted decreased herbivory. The results suggest that spatial variation in herbivory can be driven by factors other than herbivore communities and climatic gradients, and that bottom-up processes, where plant traits and soil fertility control leaf consumption, must be incorporated into spatial predictions of herbivory.

Related Articles | Metrics
Longer conserved alpine forests ecosystem exhibits higher stability to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau
Jian Li, Nan Cong, Jiaxing Zu, Yuqin Xin, Ke Huang, Quan Zhou, Yaojie Liu, Lin Zhou, Li Wang, Yang Liu and Ge Zhang
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 645-652.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz001
Online available: 08 January 2019

Abstract42)      PDF       Save
Aims

Vegetation dynamics are simultaneously regulated by climate change and anthropogenic activities. Since the 1980s, climate has been warming on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) at a rate higher than North Hemisphere average. Anthropogenic activities, including grazing, farming, and urbanization, are also influencing the alpine ecosystem on the TP. Especially, an ensemble of large engineering projects, such as power transported from west to east by State Grid, has been in operation on the TP. While studies disentangling effects of climate and anthropogenic activities interference are still lacking for the forest ecosystems on the TP. The overarching objectives of this study were to separate effects of natural climates and human interferences on forest ecosystem dynamics on the TP.

Methods

We compared vegetation activities of two typical natural reserves (Gongbu natural reserve, GNR, and Yarlung zangbo river grand canyon natural reserve, YNR) and their surroundings in southeastern Tibet (outside of the natural reserves, ONR) using long-term satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset. Linear regression and partial correlation analyses were constructed for the relationship between vegetation activity and climates to evaluate the distinct climate effects on the two natural reserves.

Important Findings

The two natural reserves were established at different time, which were related to anthropogenic activities impact durations. The results showed that the annual mean NDVI fluctuated between 0.5 and 0.6 in the relatively longer reserved YNR, which was remarkably higher than those in other regions (with NDVI lower than 0.45). The vegetation vigor in the YNR showed neither a significant temporal trend nor significant relationship with climate. Nevertheless, vegetation vigor exhibited a significant increasing trend during the last three decades (0.012/decade) at the GNR. The inter-decadal analysis turned out positive relationships between vegetation vigor and annual temperature since late 1990s until early 2000s when the GNR was officially established. This study underlined the importance of considering human interference duration when assessing the relationships between vegetation dynamics and climates.

Related Articles | Metrics
Land use legacy for a tropical myco-heterotroph: how spatial patterns of abundance, reproductive effort and success vary
Stephen McAuliffe, James D. Ackerman and Raymond L. Tremblay
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 367-375.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty029
Online available: 14 September 2018

Abstract41)      PDF       Save
Aims

Human land use such as agriculture and logging can have cascading effects on the environment and severely influence forest ecosystems by altering structure, species composition and community processes. These activities may have long-term consequences, which impact forest recovery. We investigated the legacy of historical anthropogenic land use on the current reproductive effort (RE) and success of the understory, myco-heterotrophic orchid, Wullschlaegelia calcarata in Puerto Rico’s tropical rain forest after 80 years of forest recovery.

Methods

Our study site was the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot in the Luquillo Experimental Forest. We used six 10 m × 500 m transect lines that spanned areas with differing levels of historic canopy coverage which are correlated with land use history. We recorded the abundance of W. calcarata plants and measured shoot height, number of flowers, fruit set for all plants and seed set from the most mature, undehisced fruit on a random subset of plants measured. We sought to determine whether or not there is a legacy of land use history on the RE and success of W. calcarata. Of the varying degrees of historic disturbance, we predicted that RE and success would be highest in minimally disturbed old-growth forest, and that soil type differences would be insufficient to affect RE or success.

Important Findings

We found 1607 plants of W. calcarata, and only one was detected in the most historically disturbed area of the forest. The orchids were most abundant in the two least historically disturbed sites. However, the prevailing trend in all measures of RE is in the opposite direction with greater RE in the forest plots with intermediate levels of historical disturbance. Furthermore, the best model (as a function of AICc and weights) to predict RE is a combination of soil type and cover class. Nevertheless, our measures of reproductive success (fruit and seed set) were best in the least historically disturbed sites and were not associated with soil type. Thus, the best sites for growth are not always the same as those for abundance and reproduction, and after >80 years of recovery, components of the rainforest community have not fully recovered.

Related Articles | Metrics
Resorptions of 10 mineral elements in leaves of desert shrubs and their contrasting responses to aridity
Meixia Zhang, Yan Luo, Zhengbing Yan, Jiao Chen, Anwar Eziz, Kaihui Li and Wenxuan Han
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 358-366.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty034
Online available: 08 September 2018

Abstract41)      PDF       Save
Aims

We aim to investigate variations in the resorption efficiencies of 10 mineral nutrients [i.e. nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu)] in leaves of desert shrubs and to explore effects of aridity on resorption efficiency of these nutrients.

Methods

Plant samples were collected from 10 sites in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Samples of green and senesced leaves were analysed to determine concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Al, Fe and Cu and thus the nutrient resorption efficiency.

Important Findings

The mean nutrient concentrations in the desert shrubs varied, with the stoichiometric ratio Ca:N (19.3 mg g?1):K (10.5 mg g?1):Mg:P (1.01 mg g?1):Al:Fe:Mn:Zn:Cu (4.78 mg kg?1) = 4038:2950:2199:1816:211:37:32:11:2:1 in green leaves; and Ca:N (12.6 mg g?1):Mg:K (7.6 mg g?1):P (0.56 mg g?1):Fe:Al:Mn:Zn:Cu (2.85 mg kg?1) = 5583:3710:2943:2523:178:133:119:19:3.7:1 in senesced leaves. Resorption generally occurred for six elements (N, P, K, Cu, Mg and Mn, with average resorption efficiency 47.8%, 52.0%, 38.6%, 41.0%, 12.7% and 7.89%, respectively) during leaf senescence, while the other four nutrients tended to accumulate in senesced leaves, showing averagely negative resorption efficiencies [Ca (–3.87%), Al (?57.1%), Zn (?62.6%), Fe (?89.6%)]. Aridity showed strikingly different effects on the resorption process of the 10 nutrients. Of the four elements with totally (N/P/K) or mostly (Cu) positive observations of resorption efficiency, their resorption generally decreased with aridity, suggesting that drought stress had negative effects on the resorption efficiencies of these elements. In contrast, with at least one-third observations of resorption efficiency being negative, the other elements (Mg/Mn/Ca/Zn/Al/Fe) showed generally increasing resorptive tendency with aridity, except for Zn. This research provided a systematic analysis on the large variation and contrasting responses of the resorption of multi-elements to aridity in typical desert shrubs. Our findings foster the understanding of nutrient resorption patterns of desert plants and enable us to better predict the contrastive effects of drought stress on the cycling of diverse nutrients and the consequent stoichiometric decoupling in plants of desert ecosystems.

Related Articles | Metrics
Effects of physiological integration on defense strategies against herbivory by the clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides
Rubén Portela, Bi-Cheng Dong, Fei-Hai Yu, Rodolfo Barreiro and Sergio R. Roiloa
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 662-672.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz004
Online available: 16 January 2019

Abstract39)      PDF       Save
Aims

The plant–herbivore interaction is one of the most fundamental interactions in nature. Plants are sessile organisms, and consequently rely on particular strategies to avoid or reduce the negative impact of herbivory. Here, we aimed to determine the defense strategies against insect herbivores in the creeping invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides.

Methods

We tested the defense response of A. philoxeroides to herbivory by a leaf-feeding specialist insect Agasicles hygrophila and a polyphagous sap-feeding insect Planococcus minor. We also tested the mechanisms triggering defense responses of A. philoxeroides by including treatments of artificial leaf removal and jasmonic acid application. Furthermore, we examined the effect of physiological integration on these defense strategies.

Important Findings

The combination of artificial leaf removal and jasmonic acid application produced a similar effect to that of leaf-feeding by the real herbivore. Physiological integration influenced the defense strategies of A. philoxeroides against herbivores, and increased biomass allocation to aboveground parts in its apical ramets damaged by real herbivores. Our study highlights the importance of physiological integration and modular plasticity for understanding the consequences of herbivory in clonal plants.

Related Articles | Metrics
Contrasting effects of space and environment on functional and phylogenetic dissimilarity in a tropical forest
Mengesha Asefa, Calum Brown, Min Cao, Guocheng Zhang, Xiuqin Ci, Liqing Sha, Jie Li, Luxiang Lin and Jie Yang
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 314-326.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty026
Online available: 20 July 2018

Abstract39)      PDF       Save
Aims

The evolutionary history and functional traits of species can illuminate ecological processes supporting coexistence in diverse forest communities. However, little has been done in decoupling the relative importance of these mechanisms on the turnover of phylogenetic and functional characteristics across life stages and spatial scales. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the contribution of environment and dispersal on the turnover of phylogenetic and functional diversity across life stages and spatial scales, in order to build a coherent picture of the processes responsible for species coexistence.

Methods

We conducted the study in Xishuangbanna Forest Dynamics Plot in Yunnan Province, southwest China. We used four different spatial point process models to estimate the relative importance of dispersal limitation and environmental filtering. The functional traits and phylogenetic relationships of all individual trees were incorporated in the analyses to generate measures of dissimilarity in terms of pairwise and nearest-neighbor phylogenetic and functional characteristics across life stages and spatial scales.

Important Findings

We found non-random patterns of phylogenetic and functional turnover across life stages and spatial scales. Environmental filtering structured pairwise phylogenetic and functional beta diversity across spatial scales, while dispersal limitation alone, and in combination with environment filtering, shaped nearest neighbor phylogenetic and functional beta diversity. The relative importance of dispersal limitation and environmental filtering appeared to change with life stage but not with spatial scale. Our findings suggest that phylogenetic and functional beta diversity help to reveal the ecological processes responsible for evolutionary and functional assembly and highlight the importance of using a range of different metrics to gain full insights into these processes.

Related Articles | Metrics
Indirect effect of nitrogen enrichment modified invertebrate herbivory through altering plant community composition in an alpine meadow
Fei Chen, Xiang Liu and Shurong Zhou
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 693-702.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz003
Online available: 10 January 2019

Abstract39)            Save
Aims

Nitrogen enrichment may affect ‘community invertebrate herbivory’ (hereafter ‘herbivory’) directly by changing plant species’ specific herbivory, or indirectly by altering the composition of natural plant communities. Here, we investigated how community composition altered the community herbivory in natural ecosystems and compared the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of nitrogen addition on community herbivory.

Methods

We conducted a 7-year nitrogen addition experiment in an alpine meadow to evaluate the effects of fertilization on both herbivory frequency and severity, and we divided plants into four functional groups to investigate how changes in plant community functional composition affect community herbivory frequency. To separate the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of fertilization on community herbivory frequency, we build a serious of generalized models to select variables and used SEM methods to estimate relative contributions of the direct and indirect effects.

Important findings

We found that nitrogen addition increased community herbivory frequency, but not community herbivory severity in our 7-year nitrogen addition experiment. Although the most parsimonious model for explaining the variation in community herbivory frequency included fixed average of herbivory frequency and nitrogen addition, community fixed average of herbivory was the best single predictor for community herbivory frequency in our study. Changes in fixed average of herbivory frequency mediated by plant community composition (indirect effect) outperformed changes in species-specific herbivory frequency (direct effect) under fertilization in driving community herbivory frequency. Our research suggested that indirect effects caused by changes in plant community composition played a more important role in invertebrate herbivory under the condition of anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment.

Related Articles | Metrics
Effects of fire and nitrogen addition on photosynthesis and growth of three dominant understory plant species in a temperate forest
Mengjun Hu and Shiqiang Wan
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 759-768.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz014
Online available: 12 March 2019

Abstract39)      PDF       Save
Aims

Fire and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition have the potential to influence growth and productivity of forest canopy. However, their impacts on photosynthesis and growth traits of understory plants in forests remain largely unexplored. This study was conducted to examine the effects of burning and N addition on foliar N content, net photosynthesis and growth traits of three dominant shrub species (Vitex negundoLindera glauca and Symplocos chinensis) in a temperate forest in Central China.

Methods

The experiment used a pair-nested design, with four treatments (control, burning, N addition and burning plus N addition) and five replicates. Leaf mass area (LMA), area-based concentrations of foliar N and chlorophyll (Narea and Chlarea), net photosynthesis (An), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) and maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax), basal diameter, height and branch length (BL) of the three species were measured.

Important Findings

Across the three species, burning stimulated LMA, Narea, ChlareaAngsAmax and Vcmax, and consequently enhanced basal diameter, height and BL. Nitrogen addition increased An and gs but did not affect LMA, Narea, ChlareaAmaxVcmax, basal diameter, height or BL. However, N addition strengthened the positive effects of burning on gsVcmaxAn and BL. The findings indicate the primary role of light resources in determining plant photosynthesis and growth of understory shrub species after fire and highlight that understory plants should be considered in projection of biomass accumulation and productivity of forests under environmental perturbations.

Related Articles | Metrics
The shift in the abundance of two Stipa species in response to land use change is associated with their divergent reproductive strategies
Xiaoshuai Wang, Frank Yonghong Li, Yuanheng Li, Xin Song, Xudong Guo, Xiangyang Hou and Taogetao Baoyin
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 722-729.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz012
Online available: 04 January 2019

Abstract39)      PDF       Save
Aims

The divergent changes of plant species under land use changes are key mechanisms underlying vegetation succession. Stipa grandis steppe and Stipa krylovii steppe are two plant communities widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau. They have been speculated to be able to succeed into each other under different land use types and intensities based on the observations on their presence and abundance at the sites with different land use history. However, no direct evidence, neither the underlying mechanisms, have been reported for this speculation. Here, we verified this speculation and explored the underlying mechanisms in the typical steppe region of Inner Mongolia.

Methods

We investigated the abundance and reproductive behavior of S. krylovii and S. grandis under different land use types and intensities. We used 18 grassland paddocks to run a 6-year experiment with 6 management treatments (T0—unused, T1—grazing monthly in plant growing season, T2, T4, T6—grazing in different months in plant growing season, and T8—mowing) replicated three times. We measured the relative density and cover of S. krylovii and S. grandis using line sampling method and examined their number and biomass of vegetative and reproductive tillers using quadrat method in each paddock after treatments for 4 and 6 years. We also determined these plant attributes in 14 pairs of heavily versus lightly used grassland plots in a wide area (150 km × 200 km) of the typical steppe region.

Important Findings

1. Grazing largely and mowing moderately decreased the density ratio and coverage ratio of S. grandis to S. krylovii in grasslands (P < 0.05), and the differences in these ratios between grazed and unused grasslands increased with time.

2. Grazing, but not mowing, significantly enhanced the relative density (Nrep = reproductive tiller number/total tiller number) of, and biomass allocation (Brep = reproductive tiller biomass/total biomass) to, reproductive tillers of S. krylovii (P < 0.05), but not S. grandis. This grazing enhancement to sexual reproduction of S. krylovii, and additionally inhibition to Nrep of S. grandis (P < 0.05), were found across the 14 pairs of heavily versus lightly used plots.

3. Seasonal pattern of grazing affected sexual reproduction of S. krylovii. The Nrep and Brep was higher under grazing in July and September (T4) than in July and August (T6) or in May and July (T2) (P < 0.05), suggesting a relatively positive effect of grazing on sexual reproduction in July (tasseling phenophase) than in May or August.

Our results provide direct evidence to the reciprocal change of S. grandis and S. krylovii in steppe communities under different management and indicate that gazing or mowing enhancement of sexual reproduction of S. krylovii relative to S. grandis is one of the mechanisms for the change.

Related Articles | Metrics
Fraying around the edges: negative effects of the invasive Tradescantia zebrina Hort. ex Bosse (Commelinaceae) on tree regeneration in the Atlantic Forest under different competitive and environmental conditions
Wagner A. Chiba de Castro, Rafael O. Xavier, Federico H. L. Garrido, Jair H. C. Romero, Cleto K. Peres and Ruberval C. da Luz
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 713-721.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz009
Online available: 13 February 2019

Abstract38)      PDF       Save
Aims

Invasive plants modify the structure and functioning of natural environments and threat native plant communities. Invasive species are often favored by human interference such as the creation of artificial forest edges. Field removal experiments may clarify if invasive plants are detrimental to native plant regeneration and how this is related to other local factors. We assessed the joint effect of environment and competition with the invasive Tradescantia zebrina on tree species recruitment in an Atlantic Forest fragment.

Methods

We carried out the experimental study in the Igua?u National Park, located in southern Brazil, using 30 plots distributed across five invaded sites during 6 months. We counted T. zebrina leaves and recorded the abundance and height of tree recruits over time under contrasting environmental (forest edge vs. forest interior) and removal (all aboveground biomass, only T. zebrina removal, and control) treatments. We analyzed the effects of environment and removal treatment using generalized linear mixed models.

Important Findings

The invasive species performed better at the forest edge than in the interior. The higher competitive pressure of T. zebrina led to higher mortality and lower height of tree recruits. Invader removal favored tree recruitment, especially in the forest interior. Our study shows that T. zebrina hampers woody species regeneration in tropical Atlantic Forests, especially at the forest edge.

Related Articles | Metrics
Contrasting altitudinal patterns of leaf UV reflectance and absorbance in four herbaceous species on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau
Xin Li, Xinran Ke, Huakun Zhou and Yanhong Tang
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 245-254.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty016
Online available: 25 May 2018

Abstract37)      PDF       Save
Aims

Alpine plants have to cope with intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation and its altitudinal changes. It has been argued that leaf UV reflectance and absorbance should play a central role in acclimation and adaptation to changes in UV radiation, but evidence is limited from high altitudinal ecosystems. In this study, we assessed whether leaf UV reflectance and leaf pigments jointly vary with altitude in alpine broadleaved herbaceous species. The primary hypothesis is that leaves with higher UV reflectance should have lower UV absorbance and/or lower contents of photosynthetic pigments.

Methods

Leaf UV reflectance, leaf UV absorbance and photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids) were examined in four broadleaved herbaceous species in relation to their habitat altitudes. The leaf surface reflectance and leaf extract absorbance at wavelengths of 305 and 360 nm were measured to examine the leaf optical and photochemical characteristics in the UV-B and UV-A bands, respectively. The species included Saussurea katochaete Maxim., Saussurea pulchra Lipsch., Anaphalis lactea Maxim. and Rheum pumilum Maxim., which are distributed along the same slope from 3200 to 4200 m in the Qilian Mountains, Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau.

Important Findings

The leaf UV absorbance was approximately twice as high at 305 nm (UV-B) than at 360 nm (UV-A) for all species except R. pumilum. Among the four species, the leaf UV absorbance was the highest and almost all values were within 2–6 Abs cm?2 (absorbance cm?2) in S. pulchra, but the lowest (frequently <1 Abs cm?2) were observed in R. pumilum. Only R. pumilum showed significantly higher values at higher elevations. Leaf UV reflectance was generally higher at higher elevations for all species except for A. lactea, and exhibited much larger altitudinal variations compared to leaf UV absorbance. Anaphalis lactea showed a very high UV reflectance even at low altitudes. Among the four species, photosynthetic pigments tended to decrease with an increase in leaf UV reflectance but increased with leaf UV absorbance. The study suggests that leaf UV reflectance, rather than leaf UV absorbance, plays a more active role in acclimation to altitudinal changes in UV radiation, and a high investment in leaf UV reflectance may limit the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in alpine plants.

Related Articles | Metrics
Protecting endemic seed plants on the Tibetan Plateau under future climate change: migration matters
Yujing Yan and Zhiyao Tang
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (6): 962-971.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz032
Abstract37)      PDF       Save
Aims

Climate change in the near future may become a major threat to high-altitude endemics by greatly altering their distribution. Our aims are to (i) assess the potential impacts of future climate change on the diversity and distribution of seed plants endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and (ii) evaluate the conservation effectiveness of the current National Nature Reserves (NNRs) in protecting the endemic plants in the face of climate change.

Methods

We projected range shifts of 993 endemic species to the years 2050 and 2070 under two representative concentration pathway scenarios using an ensemble species distribution modeling framework and evaluated range loss, species-richness change and coverage of the current conservation network considering two dispersal scenarios.

Important Findings

In a full-dispersal scenario, 72–81% of the species would expand their distribution by 2070, but 6–20% of the species would experience >30% range loss. Most species would shift to the west. The projected species net richness would increase across the region on average. In a no-dispersal scenario, 15–59% of the species would lose >30% of their current habitat by 2070. Severe species loss may occur in the southeastern and the eastern peripheral plateau. Seventeen percent of species ranges are covered by the NNRs on average and may increase in the future if species disperse freely. We found a significant difference of species redistribution patterns between different dispersal scenarios and highlighted the importance of migration in this region.

Related Articles | Metrics
Generalized and species-specific prediction models for aboveground biomass in semi-steppe rangelands
Anvar Sanaei, Arshad Ali, , Khaled Ahmadaali and Esfandiar Jahantab
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (3): 428-437.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty037
Online available: 26 September 2018

Abstract35)      PDF       Save
Aims

The accurate estimation of aboveground biomass in vegetation is critical for global carbon accounting. Regression models provide an easy estimation of aboveground biomass at large spatial and temporal scales. Yet, only few prediction models are available for aboveground biomass in rangelands, as compared with forests. In addition to the development of prediction models, we tested whether such prediction models vary with plant growth forms and life spans, and with the inclusion of site and/or quadrat-specific factors.

Methods

We collected dataset of aboveground biomass from destructive harvesting of 8088 individual plants belonging to 79 species in 735 quadrats across 35 sites in semi-steppe rangelands in Iran. A logarithmic transformation of the power-law model was used to develop simple prediction models for the easy estimation of aboveground biomass using plant coverage and vegetation density as predictors for the species-specific model, multispecies and plants of different growth forms and life spans. In addition, additive and multiplicative linear regression models were developed by using plant coverage and one categorical variable from the site and/or quadrat-specific factors.

Important Findings

The log-transformed power-law model based on plant coverage precisely predicted aboveground biomass across the whole dataset for either most of the species-specific model, multispecies or plants of the same growth forms (shrubs, forbs or graminoids) and life spans (annuals, biennials or perennials). The addition of vegetation density as a single or in a compound predictor variable had relatively poor performance compared with the model having plant coverage only. Although generalizing at the levels of plant group forms and/or life spans did not substantially enhance the model-fit and validation of the plant coverage-based multispecies model, the inclusion of plant growth forms or life spans as a categorical predictor variable had performed well. Generalized models in this study will greatly contribute to the accurate and easy prediction of aboveground biomass in the studied rangelands and will be also useful to rangeland practitioners and ecological modellers interested in the global relationship between biodiversity and aboveground biomass productivity across space and time in natural rangelands.

Related Articles | Metrics
Effect of groundwater depth on riparian plant diversity along riverside-desert gradients in the Tarim River
Yong Zeng, Chengyi Zhao, Jun Li, Yan Li, Guanghui Lv and Tong Liu
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (3): 564-573.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty048
Online available: 22 November 2018

Abstract35)      PDF       Save
Aims

Riparian plant diversity is sensitive to changes in groundwater in arid regions. However, little is known about how plant diversity responds to changes in environment along riverside-desert gradients in riparian ecosystem. Our objectives were to (i) identify riparian plant diversity along riverside-desert gradients in Tarim desert riparian forests, (ii) analyze the impact of environment variables on plant diversity, (iii) determine the optimum groundwater depth for different plant life-forms.

Methods

Six transects 90 quadrats (with each size 100 m × 100 m) distributed vertically to river bed along riverside-desert gradients ~30 km in length were surveyed. At each quadrat, the morphological features of riparian plant communities were measured, and the groundwater depth, soil water, soil salinity, soil nutrient were also monitored at same sites.

Important Finding

Three distinct vegetation communities were identified based on cover and richness in the tree, shrub and herb layers: the riparian zone, the transitional zone and the desert margin zone. Twelve species were indicators of the three vegetation communities. Riparian plant diversity was influenced by groundwater depth, distance from river, soil moisture content, soil salinity and soil nutrient by redundancy analysis. In response to groundwater depth, the optimal groundwater depths for species diversity, evenness and shrub cover were 2.8, 2.7 and 3.7 m, respectively. Therefore, maintaining high plant diversity requires managers to ensure stable groundwater depth for different plant life-forms rather than for some of them.

Related Articles | Metrics
Soil resource availability and its effect on the ecophysiology and establishment of Stipa pulchra
Robert L. Fitch, Erin J. Questad and Edward G. Bobich
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 603-614.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty055
Online available: 20 December 2019

Abstract35)      PDF       Save
Aims

The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the importance of soil moisture and soil nitrogen availability as resource requirements for the establishment of Stipa pulchra, (ii) to examine how changes in slope within a local habitat can affect the accumulation of soil moisture and soil nitrogen and (iii) to measure the physiological responses of S. pulchra among such slope locations.

Methods

The field experiment occurred in the San José Hills of Southern California on the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona campus. Plots were established within three different slope locations (shallow, moderate and steep) within four separate canyons. Three nitrogen treatments (ambient, addition and removal) were replicated within each slope location for all four canyons, and five S. pulchra plants were planted in each plot. Soil nitrogen accumulation and soil moisture, as well as other abiotic variables, were measured across the varied slope locations and nitrogen treatments. We measured the cover, stress, and reproduction of S. pulchra plants for 2 years and used a mesocosm experiment to determine how S. pulchra responds to varying water and nitrogen availability.

Important Findings

Stipa pulchra had a strong positive response to the wettest watering treatment and a weak response to nitrogen addition in the mesocosm experiment. In the field experiment, S. pulchra responded positively in moderate slope locations and did not respond to nitrogen treatments, possibly due to drought. Field patterns of soil moisture were driven by slope, soil compaction and solar radiation. Soil nitrogen accumulation did not vary among slope locations. For restoration of S. pulchra, priority should be placed on managing soil moisture availability and determining suitable edaphic factors.

Related Articles | Metrics
Testing mechanisms underlying elevational patterns of lakeshore plant community assembly in Poyang Lake, China
Zhichun Lan, Yasong Chen, Lei Li, Feng Li, Binsong Jin and Jiakuan Chen
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (3): 438-447.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty027
Online available: 31 October 2018

Abstract34)   HTML    PDF       Save

Aims

Plant community assembly in wetlands usually changes with elevation gradients, which may be due to the direct effect of flooding and indirect effects such as changes in soil properties and competition. However, the respective importance of each factor remains to be investigated.

Methods

We investigated patterns of plant diversity, community biomass and soil properties along an elevation gradient of a lakeshore meadow at Poyang Lake, China.

Important Findings

(i) With increasing elevation, species richness and Simpson diversity index decreased. Both aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) increased with elevation, however, the BGB/AGB ratio also increased, which suggests a significant effect of belowground competition. (ii) Soil N content and soil N:P ratio increased, whereas soil pH decreased with elevation. Other soil properties showed no significant response. (iii) Structural equation modeling showed that variation of plant diversity was mainly explained by BGB. Thus, intensified belowground competition seems to be the primary mechanism causing lower plant diversity at higher elevations. (iv) These findings were further supported by the observed greater response ratio of N and P storage in plant communities than the response ratio of soil N and P content to elevation, suggesting that soil nutrient limitation and belowground nutrient competition increased with elevation. Our study has important implications to wetland management and biodiversity conservation under environmental change (e.g. changes in flooding regimes, eutrophication).

Related Articles | Metrics
Trends in extreme climatic indices across the temperate steppes of China from 1961 to 2013
Yang Li, Yuhui Wang and Jianmin Song
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (3): 485-497.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty041
Online available: 24 October 2018

Abstract34)      PDF       Save
Aims

Extreme climate events have become more severe and frequent with global change in recent years. The Chinese temperate steppes are an important component of the Eurasian steppes and highly sensitive and vulnerable to climatic change. As a result, the occurrence of extreme climate events must have strong impacts on the temperate steppes. Therefore, understanding the spatio-temporal trends in extreme climate is important for us to assess the sensitivity and vulnerability of Chinese temperate steppes to climatic changes. This research had two specific objects to (i) specify the temporal changes in extreme climate events across the whole steppe and (ii) compare the trend differences for extreme climate events in different types of steppes—meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe.

Methods

To investigate extreme climate trends in the temperate steppes of China, 82 meteorological stations with daily temperature and precipitation data (1961–2013) were used. Meanwhile, eight core extreme climate indices (extreme high-temperature threshold, extreme low-temperature threshold, frost days, heatwave duration, heavy rainfall threshold, percentage of heavy rainfall, heavy rainfall days and consecutive dry days) from the Statistical and Regional Dynamical Downscaling of Extremes for European Regions (STARDEX) project were selected to analyse the trends in extreme climate across the whole temperate steppe and the three main types (meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe) through time and space.

Important Findings

The results showed that (i) the changes in extreme climatic temperature events across the whole temperate steppe were obvious during 1961–2013. The frost days (?3.40 days/10 year [yr]) decreased significantly, while the extreme high-temperature threshold (0.24°C/10 yr), extreme low-temperature threshold (0.52°C/10 yr), and heatwave duration (0.58 days/10 yr) increased notably. The annual changes in extreme precipitation were small and not significant. (ii) Differences appeared in the extreme climatic trends in different types of steppes. The desert steppe showed strong climate extremes and underwent the most significant asymmetric warming compared with the meadow steppe and typical steppe. At the same time, the heatwave duration (0.62 days/10 yr) increased. In terms of the extreme precipitation, there was no significant trend among the three types of steppes. However, the fluctuations in extreme precipitation were the largest in the desert steppe compared to those in the typical steppe and meadow steppe.

Related Articles | Metrics
Temperature and precipitation, but not geographic distance, explain genetic relatedness among populations in the perennial grass Festuca rubra
Maria Šurinová, Věroslava Hadincová, Vigdis Vandvik and Zuzana Münzbergová
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 730-741.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz010
Online available: 07 March 2019

Abstract34)      PDF       Save
Aims

Knowledge of genetic structure of natural populations and its determinants may provide key insights into the ability of species to adapt to novel environments. In many genetic studies, the effects of climate could not be disentangled from the effects of geographic proximity. We aimed to understand the effects of temperature and moisture on genetic diversity of populations and separate these effects from the effects of geographic distance. We also wanted to explore the patterns of distribution of genetic diversity in the system and assess the degree of clonality within the populations. We also checked for possible genome size variation in the system.

Methods

We studied genetic variation within and among 12 populations of the dominant grass Festuca rubra distributed across a unique regional-scale climatic grid in western Norway, Europe and explored the importance of temperature, precipitation and geographic distance for the observed patterns. We also explored the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations, identified population differentiation and estimated degree of clonality. The analyses used microsatellites as the genetic marker. The analyses were supplemented by flow cytometry of all the material.

Important Findings

All the material corresponds to hexaploid cytotype, indicating that ploidy variation does not play any role in the system. The results indicate that temperature and precipitation were better predictors of genetic relatedness of the populations than geographic distance, suggesting that temperature and precipitation may be important determinants of population differentiation. In addition, precipitation, alone and in interaction with temperature, strongly affected population genotypic diversity suggesting increased clonality towards the coldest and especially the coldest wettest climates. At the same time, individuals from the coldest and wettest climates also had the highest individual genetic diversity, suggesting that only the most heterozygous individuals survive under these harsh climates. Most of the genetic variation was distributed within populations, suggesting that most populations have sufficient genetic diversity to adapt to novel climatic conditions. The alpine populations, i.e. populations which are likely the most endangered by climate change, however, lack this potential due to the high levels of clonality as detected in our study.

Related Articles | Metrics
Elements of disturbance that affect epiphyte vitality in a temperate rainforest: an experimental approach
Nalini M. Nadkarni and Kevin D. Kohl
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 306-313.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty025
Online available: 16 July 2018

Abstract34)      PDF       Save
Aims

Epiphytes are an abundant and diverse component of many wet temperate forests and have significant roles in ecosystem processes. Little is known about the processes and rates of their death and decomposition when they fall from the canopy, which limits our understanding of their role in forest carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling. In the temperate rainforest of the Quinault River Valley, Washington State, our aim was to test hypotheses regarding four elements of disturbance that might contribute to their decline.

Methods

We established set of experiments in which we placed samples of canopy epiphytes and their branch segments: (i) in the canopy versus forest floor microenvironment (stratum); (ii) attached to live versus dead branch substrates; (iii) subjected to physical disruption and ‘jarring’; and (iv) in direct versus indirect contact with the forest floor. Over the 2-year study, we assigned a non-destructive ‘vitality index’ (based on color and apparent mortality and dryness) to each sample every 2–3 months to compare effects of the experimental treatments and analyzed with a statistical model and post hoc pairwise comparisons of treatments.

Important Findings

The canopy versus ground stratum and live/dead branch status significantly affected epiphyte vitality. Effects of physical disruption and ground contact were not significant. There were seasonal effects (low vitality during the sampling times in the summer, revitalization upon sampling times in the winter) for all treatments except samples in contact with the ground. One implication of these results relates to effects of climate change, which is predicted to shift to hotter, drier summers and wetter winters. Climate change may affect forest dynamics and nutrient cycling in unpredictable ways. Results also point to future experiments to understand biotic and abiotic effects on epiphyte disturbance and dynamics.

Related Articles | Metrics
Increased community compositional dissimilarity alleviates species loss following nutrient enrichment at large spatial scales
Xiaolong Zhou, Xudong Liu, Pengfei Zhang, Zhi Guo and Guozhen Du
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (2): 376-386.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty035
Online available: 14 September 2018

Abstract33)      PDF       Save
Aims

Anthropogenic activities have drastically increased nutrient availability, resulting in declines in species richness in many plant communities. However, most previous studies have explored only species-loss patterns and mechanisms over small sampling areas, so their results might overestimate species loss at larger spatial scales. The aim of this research was to explore species diversity change patterns and species-loss rates at multiple scales in alpine meadow communities following nutrient enrichment. Specifically, we asked two closely related questions: (i) do changes in species diversity and species-loss patterns differ among spatial scales? and (ii) how does community compositional dissimilarity and species turnover change among spatial scale?

Methods

This study was implemented in an alpine meadow community, which is regarded as one of the most sensitive and vulnerable terrestrial ecosystems to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We conducted a fertilization experiment that involved the addition of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and a mixture of both to a series of quadrats ranging from 1 to 16 m2 over 5 years to study the variations in the patterns of species diversity in response to nutrient additions at different spatial scales.

Important Findings

Our results showed that the changes in species diversity and species loss were dependent on the type of fertilization and the spatial scale. After N and NP fertilization, species diversity significantly decreased at the small scale but not at the large scale, and the rate of species loss decreased as the spatial scale increased. In contrast, the differences between the P addition and control communities were negligible at both the small and large spatial scales. N fertilization caused species to be lost from the small sampling scale, but because different species were lost from different samples, there was an increase in compositional dissimilarity at larger spatial scales, which reduced the total number of species lost when measured at larger scales. These findings highlight spatial scale in evaluating the biodiversity loss after fertilization and suggest that the compositional dissimilarity might play an important role in mediating species loss after fertilization. Our study significantly improved our understanding of changes in species diversity and species loss at different spatial scales under nutrient-enrichment scenarios.

Related Articles | Metrics
Seasonal distribution of increased precipitation in maternal environments influences offspring performance of Potentilla tanacetifolia in a temperate steppe ecosystem
Yang Li, Longyu Hou, Bing Song, Shiqiang Wan, Xiaoqin Sun and Linghao Li
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (4): 742-750.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rtz011
Online available: 27 February 2019

Abstract33)      PDF       Save
Aims

Precipitation is predicted to increase in arid and semiarid regions under climate change, with greater changes in intra- and inter-annual distribution in the future. As a major limiting factor in these regions, changes in precipitation undoubtedly influence plant growth and productivity. However, how the temporal shifts in precipitation will impact plant populations are uncertain.

Methods

A 3-year field experiment and a greenhouse experiment were conducted in a temperate grassland in northern China to examine the impacts of seasonal (spring and summer) increased precipitation on offspring performance of a common species, Potentilla tanacetifolia.

Important Findings

Our results showed that the amounts and timing of increased precipitation both played important roles in regulating offspring performance of P. tanacetifolia in the temperate steppe ecosystem. Increased precipitation in spring at maternal stage stimulated seed production, germination percentage and seedling biomass, whereas increased precipitation in summer at maternal stage stimulated seedling biomass. The timing of increased precipitation influenced seed attributes, whereas the amount of increased precipitation influenced offspring seedling biomass. Our results indicate that population development of P. tanacetifolia may be underestimated under future increased precipitation regime, if the transgenerational effect is not taken into account.

Related Articles | Metrics
Weighted average regression and environmental calibration as a tool for quantifying climate-driven changes in vegetation
Kuber Prasad Bhatta, Harry John Betteley Birks, John-Arvid Grytnes and Ole Reidar Vetaas
J Plant Ecol    2019, 12 (3): 460-473.   DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rty039
Online available: 26 September 2018

Abstract33)      PDF       Save
Aims

Studies of the climatic responses of plant assemblages via vegetation-based environmental reconstructions by weighted averaging (WA) regression and calibration are a recent development in modern vegetation ecology. However, the performance of this technique for plot-based vegetation datasets has not been rigorously tested. We assess the estimation accuracy of the WA approach by comparing results, mainly the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of WA regressions for six different vegetation datasets (total species, high-frequency species and low-frequency species as both abundance and incidence) each from two sites.

Methods

Vegetation-inferred environment (plot elevation) calibrated over time is used to quantify the elevational shift in species assemblages. Accuracy of the calibrations is assessed by comparing the linear regression models developed for estimating elevational shifts. The datasets were also used for the backward predictions to check the robustness of the forward predictions.

Important Findings

WA regression has a fairly high estimation accuracy, especially with species incidence datasets. However, estimation bias at the extremes of the environmental gradient is evident with all datasets. Out of eight sets (each set with a model for total species, low-frequency species and high-frequency species) of WA regression models, the lowest RMSEPs are produced in the four models based on the total species datasets and in three models based on the high-frequency species only. The inferred environment mirrored the estimation precision of the WA regressions, i.e. precise WA regression models produced more accurate calibrated environmental estimates, which, in turn, resulted in regression models with a higher adjusted r2 for estimating the elevational shift in the species assemblages. Reliable environmental estimates for plot-based datasets can be achieved by WA regression and calibration, although the edge effect may be evident if species turnover is high along an extensive environmental gradient. Species incidence (0/1) data may improve the estimation accuracy by minimizing any potential census and field estimation errors that are more likely to occur in species abundance datasets. Species data processing cannot guarantee the most reliable WA regression models. Instead, generally optimal estimations can be achieved by using all the species with a consistent taxonomy in the training and reconstruction datasets.

Related Articles | Metrics
Impact Factor
1.937
5 year Impact Factor
2.678
Editors-in-Chief
Wen-Hao Zhang
Bernhard Schmid