J Plant Ecol ›› 2018, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (2): 266-272.doi: 10.1093/jpe/rtw142

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

The effects of elevated ozone and CO2 on growth and defense of native, exotic and invader trees

Hong Wang1,2, Ling Zhang3, Xiaochi Ma2, Jianwen Zou2 and Evan Siemann2,4,*   

  1. 1 College of Resource and Environment, Anhui Science and Technology University, 168 Shungeng Road, Chuzhou 233100, China; 2 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, No. 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095, China; 3 College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, 1225 Zhimin Avenue, Nanchang 330045, China; 4 Department of Biosciences, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA
  • Received:2016-05-26 Accepted:2016-12-20 Online:2016-12-24 Published:2018-02-06
  • Contact: Siemann, Evan E-mail:siemann@rice.edu

Abstract: Aims Elevated ozone and CO2 can differentially affect the performance of plant species. Variation among native, exotic and invader species in their growth and defense responses to CO2 and ozone may shape CO2 and ozone effects on invasions, perhaps in part also due to variation between native and invasive populations of invaders.
Methods We manipulated ozone (control or 100 ppb) and CO2 (ambient or 800 ppm) in a factorial greenhouse experiment in replicated chambers. We investigated growth and defense (tannins) of seedlings of Triadica sebifera from invasive (USA) and native (China) populations and pairs of US and China tree species within three genera (Celtis, Liquidambar and Platanus).
Important findings Overall, ozone reduced growth in ambient CO2 but elevated CO2 limited this effect. T. sebifera plants from invasive populations had higher growth than those from native populations in control conditions or the combination of elevated CO2 and ozone in which invasive populations had greater increases in growth. Their performances were similar in elevated CO2 because native populations were more responsive and their performances were similar with elevated ozone because invasive populations were more susceptible. Compared to other species, T. sebifera had high growth rates but low levels of tannin production that were insensitive to variation in CO2 or ozone. Both China and US Platanus plants reduced tannins with increased CO2 and/or ozone and US Liquidambar plants increased tannins with the combination of elevated CO2 and ozone. The growth results suggest that intraspecific variation in T. sebifera will reduce the effects of CO2 or ozone alone on invasions but increase their combined effects. The tannin results suggest that defense responses to CO2 and ozone will be variable across native and exotic species. The effects of CO2 and ozone on growth and defense of native and exotic species indicate that the benefit or harm to species from these global change drivers is an idiosyncratic combination of species origin and genus.

Key words: global change, intraspecific variation, invasions, tannins, Triadica sebifera

[1] Adara Pardo, Yonatan Cáceres, Fernando Pulido. Intraspecific variation in heritable secondary metabolites and defensive strategies in a relict tree [J]. J Plant Ecol, 2018, 11(2): 256-265.
[2] Teresa L. Clark, Basil V. Iannone III, Songlin Fei. Metrics for macroscale invasion and dispersal patterns [J]. J Plant Ecol, 2018, 11(1): 64-72.
[3] Xabier Santiso, Rubén Retuerto. Master of one trade: Arbutus unedo relies on plasticity to persist under habitats differing in water availability [J]. J Plant Ecol, 2017, 10(5): 869-881.
[4] Daniel Prati, Markus Peintinger, Markus Fischer. Genetic composition, genetic diversity, and small-scale environmental variation matter for the experimental reintroduction of a rare plant [J]. J Plant Ecol, 2016, 9(6): 805-813.
[5] Guohong Wang, Jinglan Liu, Tingting Meng. Leaf trait variation captures climate differences but differs with species irrespective of functional group [J]. J Plant Ecol, 2015, 8(1): 61-69.
[6] Sergio R. Roiloa, Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría, Helena Freitas. Effect of physiological integration in self/non-self genotype recognition on the clonal invader Carpobrotus edulis [J]. J Plant Ecol, 2014, 7(4): 413-418.
[7] Purnima Raizada, Anamika Singh, A. S. Raghubanshi. Comparative response of seedlings of selected native dry tropical and alien invasive species to CO2 enrichment [J]. J Plant Ecol, 2009, 2(2): 69-75.
[8] D. Abhilasha, J. Joshi. Enhanced fitness due to higher fecundity, increased defence against a specialist and tolerance towards a generalist herbivore in an invasive annual plant [J]. J Plant Ecol, 2009, 2(2): 77-86.
Full text



[1] Shuirong Jian, Yong Wan, Xiangdong Luo, Jun Fang, Chengcai Chu, Jiankun Xie. Genetic Analysis of Cold Tolerance at the Seedling Stage in Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon)[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2011, 46(1): 21 -27 .
[2] Liu Xuan-ming. The Effect of Different Combined Forms of Nitrogen on the Regeneration of Lactuca satuva var capitata[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1992, 9(04): 44 -45 .
[3] GU Shu-Rong;MA Qing-Hu and SONG Yan-Ru. Studies on Stem Segments Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Suaeda forsk[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(04): 59 -62 .
[4] CHEN Shao-Liang LI Jin-Ke BI Wang-Fu WANG Sha-Sheng. Genotypic Variation in Accumulation of Salt Ions, Betaine and Sugars in Poplar Under Conditions of Salt Stress[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2001, 18(05): 587 -596 .
[5] Zhang Hua-xuan. The Report on karyotypes of Plantago lessingii and P. minuta[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1997, 14(03): 54 -56 .
[6] LI Ling-Hao;WANG Qi-Bing and XING Xue-Rong. Advances in the Research of Some Important Issues Concerning Forest Ecosystems[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(01): 17 -26 .
[7] Pu Jin-long;Ji Xiao-duo;He Zhen-xing;Gui Xiao-ming and Chen Xiao-liang. GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oils from some Species of Amomun[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1984, 2(04): 23 -25 .
[8] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1996, 13(专辑): 55 -57 .
[9] Yong Zhuang;Longzheng Chen;Yingui Yang;Qunfeng Lou;Jinfeng Chen . Changes in Gene Expression in Evolution of Plant Allopolyploids[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2006, 23(2): 207 -214 .
[10] SHU Qun-Fang;ZHAO Lu;LI Wen-Bin and SUN Yong-Ru. Strategies and Methods for Cloning Plant Genes[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(01): 80 -85 .